Wednesday, July 31, 2019

How useful are urban models to the modern geographer and urban planners?

An urban model is a simplification of a real city. They are used to help us understand more about real cities by showing patterns or processes which in real life may be complex and difficult to identify. They are applicable to a large number of cities rather than one particular city. They are based on the idea that there are similarities between cities. Geographers use these models to try and identify and explain urban spatial patterns and variations in their structure. Where as urban planners use the models to deal with real life situations such as deciding where to place a new motorway or deciding where to build a new business park. The first urban model to be produced was by Burgess in 1924 he attempted to explain the outward expansion of the city (Chicago) and the socioeconomic groupings of it inhabitants. He did this by splitting the city into five concentric zones: the central business district, transition zone, low class housing, medium class housing and high class housing. He devised these zones by the theory that individual compete with each other for the most favourable locations within the city. This competition was founded on the market for buildings and land: those who can afford the highest prices will get the best and most favourable land. This model could be useful to modern geographers as it could be used as a good starting point to look at the spatial variations of sections/zones within a town. It could also help to explain why people live where they do and why they live in certain groups. This model could be useful to modern urban planners as it could be used to describe the existing patterns of land use or city morphology and be compared to that of the modern morphology of a city in deciding where to place a certain building etc. due to the density of inhabitants in a certain area. It could also be used to measure land values and density within a city. Hoyt was the second producer of an urban model in 1939. He adapted on the same implicit assumptions that burgess had made but with adaptations. Hoyt's model was based on the mapping of eight housing variables for 142 cities in the USA. He tried to account for changes in, and the distribution of residential patterns. He had the addition of three new factors on the burgess model. He suggested that areas of the highest rent tended to be alongside main lines of communication and that the city grew in a series of wedges. He also said that once an area had developed a land use that it would remain that use as the city extended outwards. This model could be useful to modern geographers as it is a better adaptation of the burgess model. Meaning that extra factors have been taken into consideration such as the wealth and similar land uses. This could be more helpful as it makes more judgements on where and why variations will happen. Such as wealthy people can afford the highest rates so will have the best position and afford to buy cars so will live further from he Central business district. This model could be useful to modern urban planners as it is a better adaptation of the burgees model with extra factors taken into consideration. This could be helpful to a planner as it talks about land value and how similar land uses attract other similar land uses. This is helpful as a planner can locate where certain industries are and where to situate them. Also to know where the wealthy people are will help to know what services and transport routes are best targeted towards them Mann was the third producer of an urban model in 1965. He tried to adapt the Burgess and Hoyt models to three industrial towns in northern England. He made a compromise model that combined ideas of burgess concentric zone model with that of Hoyt's sectors model. He assumed that because of prevailing winds in northern Britain blow from the west, that the high class housing would be in the west and industry with its smoke, would be locate to the east of the central business district. This model could be useful to modern geographers as it combines the two theories of Hoyt and burgees resulting in a more complex and relevant model. It could be useful to see if industry does affect the position and distance of certain types of economic wealth. This model could be useful to modern urban planners as it combines the theories of Hoyt and burgees producing a more complex and applicable model. It could be useful in the location of industry and the construction of houses for different socio economic inhabitants. Ullman and Harris were the fourth producers of an urban model in 1945. They set out to produce a realistic model compared to those of Burgess and Hoyt but consequently they ended up with one that was more complex and this meant that the model was more descriptive then predictive. They said that a multiple nuclei needed to be developed as a response to the need for maximum accessibility to a centre, to keep certain types of land use apart and to show differences of land values, This model could be useful to modern geographers as it is more realistic to the modern world with its complexity. It could be useful to see if a town/city does actually follow the model with several nuclei. It also help to explain the inhabitants that commute to the central business district and see if they add to its density and population. This model could be useful to modern urban planners as it could help to locate bus routes and roads that were needed for the commuters and people who travel to work from the multiple nuclei. It could also help in the planning and placing of new houses for the people leaving the city to commute to work. In conclusion I think that urban models are very useful to modern geographers and planner's .I think that models are a good starting point for analysing the morphology of modern cities. These models were produced in the past so it is obvious that changes will have taken place such as technology, fashions and transport. This does not mean that the models cannot be of use. The principles can still remain with a little adaptation to the real modern world.

Tuesday, July 30, 2019

Women in Reservation

On Women’s Day (March 8), India witnessed the high voltage drama over much talked Women’ Reservation Bill in the Parliament. The Women’s Reservation Bill is the most essential bill to empower women in Indian politics. According to the bill, women will enjoy 33 per cent of the reservations in the Lower House of the Parliament and Assemblies. Rajya Sabha, the Upper House of the Parliament has passed the Women’s Reservation Bill on 9 March 2010, this day in India can be termed as one of the historic days in Indian politics.Major political parties were in favor of the bill. The debate in the Upper House was interesting amidst the chaos and drama of the opposing Member of Parliaments. Stand of Political Parties: Thanks to Sonia Gandhi the Chairperson of Congress Party for the introduction of the bill on the eve of Women’s Day. And the support from the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) was accolade by the supporter of the bill.The stand of the BJP over the bil l is clear and the former Prime Minister of India, Atal Bihari Vajpayee was in favor of the bill. The other parties were in against of the Bill and the supporters of UPA government have threatened to withdraw their support. While talking to NDTV the soon after the bill was passed in Parliament, the Congress Chairperson, Sonia Gandhi was more confident about the bill. She also urged the need of the bill in India politics. Why the Women’s Reservation Bill?The need of the hour is women empowerment. The fact can’t be denied that still after 50 years of getting independence and self governance of Indian democracy, there is need to protect the interest of women in India. The bill will give 33 per cent of compulsory presence of women representing various parties in the Upper House of the Parliament and Assemblies. There is fear of losing elections if the women candidates are allowed to contest from various constituencies, may the right think†¦ [continues]

Monday, July 29, 2019

Cadbury Dairy

Cadbury Dairy milk is in the mature stage of the product life cycle, the reason being is that it is a well-established product since 1905. The maturity point is generally reached when about half the potential users have adopted the product. Since Cadbury Dairy Milk is Australia’s favourite chocolate, it is safe to say that there is already consumer trust and loyalty to the brand. However customers still need continued satisfaction and loyalty, built on lower cost, differentiation or customer service. Seeing that Cadbury chocolate is considered a common brand name in households all over Australia, there is nothing within the external environment that should be modified and it will remain in a strong steady position in the confectionery industry. Product: In order to continue generating sales, Cadbury took into consideration one of the threats that the confectionery industry is facing today. Consumers are becoming more health conscious; therefore Cadbury will support and promote physical activity by giving away mountain bikes to 100 lucky winners around Australia! The promotion will only feature in the Cadbury Dairy Milk chocolate block range: including the Fruit and Nut, Hazelnut etc†¦ Featured on the wrapping will be, â€Å"WIN A MOUNTAIN BIKE† with a picture of the bike that will be won. Price: The pricing of Dairy Milk Chocolate will also maintain the same pricing strategies to remain competitive with its competitors Nestle and Mars. Place: The distribution of Cadbury Dairy Milk should be at its maximum capacity, remaining readily available in supermarkets, convenience stores, seven elevens and kiosks. Promotion: Cadbury should continue to generate promotions to remind and encourage consumers to purchase Dairy milk chocolate. In order to maintain the sales of Dairy Milk, sales promotion should be implemented to generate growth. This is done by creating advertisements on Television and in-store promotional posters to display the promotion that is running. The television and in-store promotion is to inform consumers of the promotion that is currently running. The sales promotion will be â€Å"WIN A MOUNTAIN BIKE† This promotion is for the Cadbury Dairy Milk block chocolate range. Every consumer that purchases a block range from Cadbury’s will have the opportunity to enter the competition by text via SMS a code that is given inside the wrapper. f. ) Marketing Action Plans: A key objective is to hold current customers and to maintain and increase the retail and brand market share to make sure that the Cadbury brand and products remain one of the top selling confectionery brands in Australia. Since Cadbury Dairy Milk is in the top five selling chocolates list, there will be no need for any tremendous change. A good way to promote The other Cadbury block chocolate range such as Fruit and nut and Hazelnut†¦etc will also have his competition. Price: Cadbury’s human resources department will need to find a place that will provide us with the mountain bikes. The costing of the bikes and the overall promotions will need to be considered, as Cadbury does not want to spend so much on promotions, when Cadbury Dairy Milk is not declining any time soon. Promotion: Pictures of this new competition will need to be put in magazines such as: Women’s day, News Idea, newspapers†¦. etc†¦designers will be needed to create the advertisements for this promotion. However, to promote Cadbury Dairy Milk’s new competition, television is the key to ensure that viewers all around Australia will know about the â€Å"WIN A MOUNTAIN BIKE† promotion. As television is the main and preferred type of advertising, it is certain that consumers will know about the competition faster. And in addition to that, the Cadbury chocolate commercials will still be showing, to heighten promotions. It is best to air the promotion on television between 4:00 pm – 9:00pm, since that is the time when consumers are most likely to be at home. Place: The exposure of Cadbury Dairy Milk promotion will need to be more publicized in convenience stores and kiosks in the form of a poster. g. ) Management of the marketing effort and the marketing function: In order to make sure that they marketing effort and function works accordingly a few steps have to be taken in regards to the management of the planning. The three step process that will have to be put in place will be based around †¢Marketing Implementation –The process of putting marketing strategies into action †¢Intended Strategy The strategy that the company decides on during the planning phase †¢Realized Strategy – The strategy that actually takes place Cadbury must be able to respond and adapt to its internal marketing department. Coordinating internal exchanges between the firm and its employees to achieve successful external exchanges between the firm and its customers is very important as it allows for a gauge or a measure to be received as a result of acceptance and understanding. In regards to the marketing activities it all starts within the Cadbury management team. The ability to motivate marketing personnel plays a large part in the initial process to get the promotional idea off the ground, once the team is able to have a grip of the idea that tackles the current health issue and that a bike will be awarded as a prize and health product then extreme communication within the marketing unit will be essential. Openness and responsiveness from other marketing departments will be just as important to make sure that the management and strategy travels across all channels. This will be indispensable to the organizing and coordinating of marketing activities which then lead to a schedule for implementation. The marketing control process consists of three steps; Establishment of control standards, Evaluation of actual performance relative to established standards and corrective action if necessary. A few key guidelines that will help Cadbury in controlling marketing activities: Within the Marketing Control Process †¢Establishing performance standards and trying to match actual performance to those standards Establishing Performance Standards Expected levels of performance †¢Taking Corrective Action oImprove actual performance oReduce or change the performance standards oDo both †¢Problems in Controlling Marketing Activities oLack of the information required to control activities oUncontrollable influence of market environment changes on marketing activities oTime lag that occurs between marketing campaigns and their results delays corrective actions A few problems can also occur in the controlling of marketing activities, however the ability to act on these problems will only make the campaign more successful and responsive.

Sunday, July 28, 2019

Gaia Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Gaia - Essay Example This would not be possible if the Earth's components were functioning separately. "It has never been too hot or too cold for life to survive on our planet, in spite of drastic changes in the composition of the early atmosphere and variations in the sun's output energy." (Lovelock, p 48). This is linked to humans in the way that our bodies sweat and shiver to maintain a body temperature. The Earth is not exactly shivering or sweating but is regulating its own temperature as most living organisms do, which is why the hypothesis stating that earth is functioning as a single organism is called the Gaia hypothesis, named after the ancient Greek Goddess of the Earth. The word Gaia may have many different meanings in many different circles but the essence is the same. Gaia is the Earth, its spirit, its Goddess and it's the unique technique in which the earth functions, a self-contained and remarkable anomaly in our solar system.

Legalization of Same Sex Marriage Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1750 words

Legalization of Same Sex Marriage - Essay Example There was paramount work done in developed states mostly United States and those in the European continent. The initials perception for those who advocated and struggled to fight for this abhorrent practice was short sightedness of the issue several consequences. This is because most of them focused on the materials based on the biblical issues without the considerations of the surrounding factors of the family institution as better start point for healthy and prosperous communities of the nation. Their basement on the religious issue was personal to involve, getting in the different religions which was one way of gaining access of banning the laws which acted as barrage to fulfillment of the detestable practice. Then, as it has always been, the repercussions of every action are felt after sometime, hence the fulfillment of the adage which say "time is the best prophet of the future". (Symons, 1980) Gay and lesbian marriage brings about abnormal practices which were unheard in our traditions and already established society. It is not that the people of the old and new generations are in the state of objecting the change. But under the practices which have already been demonstrated throughout the world are alarming due to the use of such homosexually kinds of marriages. Gay marriages have rooted cultures which display non-commitments to the established ways of living. The era before the coming up of most arguments that lead to the founding of the gays and lesbianism, families were mostly established under the heterosexuality mode of marriage. The old set of heterosexuality was more binding to the building of families which were ever long lasting and welcoming. The rapid increase on religions and political as well economic trade with the globalization era is the ones which have brought with them to ever alarming issues on the marriage institutions. (Leach, 1978) The heated debates on liberty for women and for marriage has resulted to the allowing of people to do things on the own will. This has greatly ended up making many families on the contemporary society to have a misunderstanding of marriage values and purposes. As most people would think and consider marriage, most of the early people viewed marriage as means which was set to for particular goal. The family was highly valued as it created a place which the two married people would build one another. Basically, religious studies research and through the biological scientific work which have already been disseminated, there is clear evidence that neither man nor woman can claims that he/she is perfectly complete. This study reveals that they all have certain percentage which is complemented by the partners in which they get involved. The complementation of the two people who get involved in the marriage issues is quite unique. This of course involves a number of ways which are not limit ed to the spiritual, physical and even psychological means. (Rosenblatt, 2005) Legalization of same sex marriages would thus make individuals to get into gay and lesbianism. This would actually invert the purposes of complementation on the wide studied field. The natural over turn of the marriages issues can be viewed as the source of the many problems which the global world is

Saturday, July 27, 2019

Gangs and gang behavior - week 5 Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words - 1

Gangs and gang behavior - week 5 - Essay Example disruptive conduct disorders before entry into school system (Kalb &Loeber, 2003) and, according to Loeber and Farrington (2001), these problems develop later during growth. The later theory is backed by Vaughn and colleagues (2009), who argue that children become more exposed to an array of risks during the elementary period and onward and also argue that children get more vulnerable to bad peer influences outdoor. In other cases, some theories do not highlight other potential causes of this problem of gang involvement, for example, Loeber, Farrington and Petechuk (2003) including Tremblay (2003) discover that concentrated disadvantages obstruct socialization of juveniles. Loeber and Farrington (2001) talk about relevant family variables present at the preschool level, low social resources and a number of family hitches inclusive. On another account, Pogarsky, Lizotte and Thornberry (2003) identified broken families, parental delinquency, poor child management, abuse, grave matrimonial conflicts and inexperienced young motherhood. With regards to the above, it is vivid to see that other theories actually forget to put into account other relevant factors. In another analysis, theories contend for example Kroneman, Loeber and Hipwell (2004) who strongly assimilate societal poverty with behavioral problem and specifically girls, Hipwell (2002) as well as Wei (2005) make a conclusion regarding the same theory highlighting girls become the most affected in disadvantaged neighborhoods. Some factors are common across all the four developmental stages as well as the theories, therefore, this means that a single theory can be developed out of all the theories with respect to the developmental stages of a

Friday, July 26, 2019

Phosgene Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Phosgene - Essay Example At temperatures above 250oC, phosgene decomposes to mixtures of carbon monoxide (CO), chlorine gas (Cl2), carbon dioxide (CO2), and carbon tetrachloride (CCl4). Owing to its low boiling point of 7.56oC, it is very volatile and non persistent. "It may remain for long periods of time in trenches and other low lying areas" (Federation of American Scientists, 2007). Phosgene smells of newly mown hay, at room temperature. It is soluble in fatty oils and organic solvents. Its odor threshold is 0.12-5.7 ppm. And its Permissible Exposure Limit Threshold Limit value (by volume in air) is 0.1 ppm (American Chemistry Council, 2002). Physical properties of Phosgene are given below: Phosgene hydrolyses slowly in water and releases hydrochloric acid and carbon dioxide. Phosgene reacts easily with caustic solution and even more so with ammonia and ammonia water. Phosgene produces hazardous chemical reactions with certain substances. Powdered aluminum burns in the presence of the vapor of phosgene. Phosgene also reacts with alcohols. For example, with 2,4-Hexadiyne-1,6-diol, phosgene produces a shock sensitive compound 2,4-hexadiyne-1,6-bischloroformate. It also produces hazardous products on reaction with secondary amines. When phosgene is mixed with potassium and subjected to shock, it explodes (American Chemistry Council, 2002). Phosgene is a highly dangerous pulmonary toxicant. ... erg/mol cm Solubility Parameter Dipole Moment Van der Waals Volume Van der Waals Area 5.64E+04 1.16919 34.9 5.20E+09 (erg/cm3)A1/2 Debye (D) cm3/mol cm2/mol Refractive Index Flash Point Upper Flammability Limit Lower Flammability 1.35609 Unknown Unknown Unknown C vol% in air vol% in air Upper Flammability Temperature Lower Flammability Temperature Auto-Ignition Temperature Unknown Unknown Unknown C C C Density Vapor Density Vapor Pressure 1.38 (20oC) 3.4 365 (-10oC) 555 (0oC) 1173 (20oC) g/cm3 mmhg LC50 5 ppm/1h Phosgene hydrolyses slowly in water and releases hydrochloric acid and carbon dioxide. Phosgene reacts easily with caustic solution and even more so with ammonia and ammonia water. Phosgene produces hazardous chemical reactions with certain substances. Powdered aluminum burns in the presence of the vapor of phosgene. Phosgene also reacts with alcohols. For example, with 2,4-Hexadiyne-1,6-diol, phosgene produces a shock sensitive compound 2,4-hexadiyne-1,6-bischloroformate. It also produces hazardous products on reaction with secondary amines. When phosgene is mixed with potassium and subjected to shock, it explodes (American Chemistry Council, 2002). Mechanism of Injury Phosgene is a highly dangerous pulmonary toxicant. Its exposure may not produce any symptoms for a long time, and by the time symptoms are detected it usually results in fatalities. Its exposure produces massive pulmonary edema. The routes of exposure to phosgene are inhalation, and skin/eye contact. Inhalation: This is the major route of phosgene exposure. Since it is hard to detect the odor, there may be prolonged asymptomatic exposures. Phosgene also causes asphyxiation in poorly ventilated places, since it is heavier than air at temperatures above 8oC (American Chemistry

Thursday, July 25, 2019

The film Captain Phillips, Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

The film Captain Phillips, - Essay Example Storming is characterized by competition and conflicts in the personal relations. The third stage is norming where interpersonal relations are characterized by cohesion. Performing is the next stage but not all groups attain this stage. Here there is true interdependence in interpersonal relations while at the same time members can act independently in their subgroups. The final stage is adjourning which entails terminating task activities and disengaging from the relationships. Richard Phillips, the captain of unarmed MV Maersk Alabama, and his crewmen exhibit the above mentioned stages of group development. Wary of Piracy activities in Somali coastline, the team conducts drills that clearly portray the unity and dependency that members have on each other. Storming stage sets in soon afterwards as some crewmen are engaged in conflicts with both Phillips and among themselves. It is apparent that they might not work in unity for long. However, this stage does not last for so long. It appears to have been triggered by the eminent pirate attack and the groups once again state acting cohesively. Performing, a stage characterized by true interdependence and members working independently sets in afterwards. Captain Phillips risks his life to engage with the pirates. On the other hand, one of the crewmen turns off the power of one of the rooms as a strategy to shield themselves. The last stage is adjourning after the capture of the pirates and the group terminates the task at hand as well as disengage from established

Wednesday, July 24, 2019

Book Analyses on Ramona by Helen Hunt Jackson Essay

Book Analyses on Ramona by Helen Hunt Jackson - Essay Example This is a strong character trait, a calm acceptance, and the ability to be grateful for the love received from others, in particular, old Father Salviederra and Felipe. At the age of 19, when the story opens, Ramona was still waiting patiently, working hard in the house, helping others and displaying a generosity of spirit which allowed her to pity the Senora, with 'gentle faithfulness' (Chap 3, p) She was thus both intuitive and perceptive. Within Ramona, there was a core of strength and pride which became apparent when faced with Senora Moreno's refusal to allow a marriage with Alessandro. Her sense of justice, love and loyalty enabled her to overcome fear and desperation as she dared to tell the Senora, "You have been cruel; God will punish you." (Chap 12 p) Evidence of a lack of material greed was presented, when all she took from the jewels and rich clothes, her potential inheritance, was a ragged silk handkerchief. "I will keep this handkerchief...I am very glad to have one thing that belonged to my father." (Chap. 11, p) Her character may be aptly described as noble. Despite all the tragedy which followed her marriage to Alessandro, Ramona showed a steadfast love and loyalty, the ability to make the best of any situation, and a willingness to stand up for what she believed in. The implications, threaded throughout the narrative, are that the character of Ramona is a positive reflection of her Indian heritage. Such positive attributes were designed by the writer to highlight the qualities, as well as the unjust situation of the Native American people at that time. Morality of Ramona: If examined on a superficial level, some might consider that her actions suggest the behavior of a disobedient, spoiled and willful young woman, driven to demanding her own way and getting what she deserved as a result of her ingratitude. This is evidently not the case, there was no other way Ramona could have behaved and stayed true to herself and her nature. From childhood to womanhood, she displayed a purity of heart, a goodness which meant she did no harm to another person, took only what was hers, expressed gratitude, and held onto her integrity when tragedy struck. Ramona showed that justice, loyalty and love were more important to her than material possessions, ideals made more evident by her willingness to leave a life of relative luxury and security, for one of poverty and dispossession, the lot of the Indian people. Her motives were not only driven by love for Alessandro, but by the realization that she 'belonged' - she acknowledged her Indian heritage, and the fact that she would never be a Spanish noblewoman. Becoming 'Majella' was symbolic of this acceptance, she was honest, and tried to live by her own code. "Nothing can be so bad as to be displeased with one's self." (Chap. 4 p.) This was Ramona's moral code. The qualities of grace, love, loyalty and courage in the face of adversity were evident in the tragic life she encountered, losing her child, then Alessandro, but holding fast to her beliefs. It is significant that wherever they went, people were impressed by her goodness. It is significant

Tuesday, July 23, 2019

Literature theory Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Literature theory - Essay Example The only difference is that Iser impresses that the value of literature is in making sense of the literature itself while Barthes says literature is the product of the culture. According to Barthes, readers too read and find meaning in the literature just as anthropologists do. These are often expressed symbolically. Iser too finds gaps in the literature of which the reader is expected to make sense. The reader is also expected to make moral judgments of the characters, according to Iser. Compare/contrast the rhetorical theories of Iser and Fetterly. Try to identify areas of agreement and disagreement in their discussions of how readers read and/or how poetry affects its audiences. (186 words). Fetterly states that most of American literature has been written by male and from a male perspective. It also reflects the male oppressive attitude towards women and a woman is expected to identify against herself when she reads such literature. Fetterly further insists that a woman should resist what the literature wants her to do. In contrast Iser feels the value of the literature lies in trying to make sense of the literature. While Fetterly states that women should not allow this sort of literature to affect us as the literature carries the culture, Iser contends that we do not perceive or absorb all that the literature wants to convey at the same time. It takes place over a period of time. Fetterly believes that women should attempt to change the culture. They should not just try to read through the intention of the author but reject it if they find it objectionable but Iser feels that at times the effect on the reader is much later and this is true of a novel as well as poetry. Both however agree that literature affects the reader. Woolf, Arnold and Eliot all three agree that the individual writer is influenced by the literary tradition but they disagree on the

The Dispositional and Learning Theories Essay Example for Free

The Dispositional and Learning Theories Essay An individual’s personality is his/her distinctive pattern behavioral tendencies or psychological process that defines how he/she reacts with the environment. Personality manifests itself in one’s behavior towards others people and situations in the surrounding. While some aspects of personality are genetically inherited, others are picked from one’s environment. Personality that is influenced by the environment is developed by the context of the family or culture of the close society (Carver et al, 2000). Psychologists who study personality characterize personality traits and scrutinize their influence on and prediction of one’s behaviors. In addition to comparing and contrasting dispositional and learning theories of personality, this paper discusses the role of personality in influencing one’s behavior. The personality theories of disposition and learning and the resultant characteristics are used to explain interpersonal relations in individual. The Dispositional and Learning Theories Psychologists have developed many approaches to human personalities such as existential, humanistic, biological, or genetic, descriptive, and psychodynamic theories. The dispositional theory that regards personality to be composed of behavioral tendencies, traces its roots to ancient Greek Philosopher, medicine guru, and psychologist Hypocrites. The dispositional theory explains that psychological characteristics remain stable in an individual over a long period of exposure to a given situation. Learning theories stresses the concept that behaviors are a consequence of one’s encounters with the environment and his/her reactions to different life experiences. An individual’s experiences shape his/her behavior in different situations. The classical conditioning and punishment one receives while growing up tend to shape the way they react to similar or related scenarios in future. The learning theory may be divided into a sub-class called the Cognitive social learning that expounds on the role of cultural values and related ways of facing situations borrowed from the society. The traits are learned and internalized without any pressure applied to an individual. Personality Characteristics and Interpersonal Relationship The theories discussed above explain the origin of certain traits or characteristics upon which one’s personality is based. These traits are vital in dictating the interpersonal relationships of a person. The main characteristics include emotional stability, conscientiousness, agreeableness, extroversion, and openness or intellect. Extraversion entails being assertive, excitement seeking and state of seeking high levels of activity. The individual is always filled with positive emotions and warmth. Agreeable persons are always straightforward in their actions and are generally trustworthy. They also profess to altruism, carrying out acts that are beneficial to others while the actor forgoes comfort and happiness. These individuals are not only yielding but are also more likely to agree to other’s desire and demands. In addition, they are modest in their actions towards others and different situations. Conscientiousness on the other hand refers to positive traits such as self-discipline and dutifulness in an individual. This trait is mainly explained by the learning theory where discipline is instilled in a person by a learning process. Such people are in most cases orderly in their handling of different situations, making them develop healthy interpersonal relationships. Those with this trait tend to deliberate a lot when faced with new situations and they always strive for achievements (Carver et al, 2000). In addition to these features, such individuals are in most cases competent in their actions. Neuroticism is another characteristic attributed to the personality theories. Neuroticism refers to impulsiveness in actions, anxiety, and vulnerability of an individual. Besides being generally hostile, the person is always prone to depression when faced with unfamiliar situations. Exposure to environments of depression or cruelty enhances one’s risks of adopting such traits. Neuroticism is thus attributed to dispositional theory of personality. Openness refers to being welcoming and accommodative to new ideas, feelings and values. Such an individual easily welcomes new types of experience in his/her life. Their personality traits allow them to adjust and effectively manage unfamiliar situations. These individuals learn pick up new modes of action necessitated by interaction with new environments. Openness, which fosters good interpersonal relations, is attributed to dispositional theory of personality. Personality and Situational Behavior Debate rages on whether one’s behavior towards certain situations is controlled by the personality or the situation itself. The debate has however been productive, as an approach that is more dynamic has been adopted regarding the role of personality in facing different situations. The two approaches widely contrasted are the personality view and the situational circumstance. While the personality approach argues that one’s personality styles dictate the behavior, the situational theory stresses that behavior depends on the immediate situation. Are there situations where one’s personality surpasses the immediate situation so that he/she make rational judgment on the situation? Individuals should apply their personality to control situations and not the other way round. A person’s conduct towards a situation should not be controlled by the situation at hand. The main psychological variables upon which one’s behavior in different situations hinges are personality traits. An individual’s behavior in face of a situation is predicted by his/her personality (Carver et al, 2000). One’s behavior is influenced by the interaction between his/her personality traits and the immediate situations. However simplistic this view seems, there is always a mutual existence between the situation, and one’s personality in developing a behavioral inclination. Different situations may affect an individual in different ways. While some situations make an individual to express his/her personality traits, others limit their choices or behavior in relating with the situation. People also vary in how they allow their personality to react to different situations. While others have a high tendency to adapt to the situation, others have a consistent personality-situation relationship. This dependency on their personality is due to their inability to adapt to different situations. Personality also most often show up in situation where they are needed to help solve a problem. People also tend choose situations depending on their personalities. Personality however does not predict how one will react to a specific situation that lasts for a short/specific time. Personality therefore only predicts one’s general or overall behavioral trend towards general situations. Some individuals show behavior that is more consistent and their personality traits only emerge in some situations. Research has also shown that the influence of personality on handling of situations wanes with time. Whatever people do in life and the situations they are comfortable with are dictated largely by their traits. These choices may be in relation to careers, relationships, and lifestyle in general. Conclusion Personality, which refers to the psychological classification of people results from the different traits/characteristics inherent in individual. Among the theories that explain personality are the dispositional and the learning theories. These theories explain how individuals interact with different situations in their environment. While some people use judgment to interact with the environment, others use the approach of perception in developing a behavior towards situations. There are various characteristics attributed to these personality theories, namely emotional stability, conscientiousness, agreeableness, extroversion, and openness or intellect. Reference Carver, C. S. , Scheier, M. F. (2000). Perspectives on personality. Needham Heights

Monday, July 22, 2019

Social Work Theory and Methods of Intervention Essay Example for Free

Social Work Theory and Methods of Intervention Essay This piece of work will attempt to look at how a chosen Social Work method can be useful in case work intervention with an individual. It will look at the theory in detail with regards to its application in the client/worker relationship, taking into consideration issues of anti-discriminatory practice and the limitations which the method may have in delivering a holistic service. It will then consider the benefits of using another method in conjunction with the first in order to compliment this and provide more robust ministrations. The individual chosen from the case study is Michael. He is 15 years old and has recently been arrested along with two friends. This is not his first offence and he has intimated that he feels confused and has no-one to talk to. Additionally his relationship with family members is tentative at the present time and he has been blamed for the arrest by his friends. The method chosen in this instance is Cognitive Behavioural. This approach is concerned with the way we think. It makes the assumption that behaviour is directed by thoughts. Unlike many other concepts, which concentrate more on unconcious drives, feelings or internal conflict. Cigno and Bourne 1998, believe that most of what makes us individuals rather than clones, what shapes our personalities, including behaviour, emotion and cognition, is a result of what we have learned. This paradigm is rooted in behaviourist theory. Pavlov introduced classical conditioning after his work on physiological processes of digestion. This was a specifically centred around work with laboratory animals, which when observed in experiments began to develop associations and anticipations about food. Pavlov named this stimulus association learning. Operant conditioning is also part of this model, introduced by B. F Skinner 1953, it interposed the concepts of positive and negative reinforcment as a result of stimulus. He believed that almost any set of stimuli can aquire reinforcing or punishing associations through the consequences they bring Cigno and Bourne1998. Cognitive and behavioural theories are principles from two related streams of psychological writing, Payne 1997. Social learning theory (Bandura), focuses the fact that most behaviour is learned. However it goes further than behavioural theory by implying that peoples perceptions and thinking about their experiences and modelling what they see around them are vital to the process and interdependent to the feelings that they have regarding this. Basically Bandura believed that how we think has an affect on our behaviour and that both of these are open to change. The way we think about a situation mediates between the outside world and our inner self, Harrison and Butler 2004. People have the capacity to change and behaviour is assimilated by goals, Sheldon 1995. Cognitive behavioural programmes are based on the application of both social learning theory and cognitive theory to inform therapeutic methods, Cigno and Bourne 1998. This assessment would be done with the intention of helping Michael to see where he is at present with his own thought processes (hopes, fears,values) and to progress from these to try to make Michaels behaviour goal orientated, e. g getting Michael to think about offending in a different way and continuous reinforcment of a desired behaviour will work quickly to decrease in the behaviour which leads to offending, this promotes change in the thinking behind offending behaviour. Shaping can also be used, reinforcing small steps made toward a required behaviour. The worker also needs to challenge negative thought processes. Feedback needs to be encouraged so that Michael can see what he has achieved oustide sessions, Harrison and Butler 2004. Once the desired behaviour is achieved fading would be used to reduce the amount or type of reinforcement. This enables Michael to transfer his behaviour to other settings, Payne1997. The principle of self-talk can be tried out with Michael also. Cigno and Bourne 1998 indicate that children gain self-control over their actions as their inner speech develops. Using this formula in the form of self-talk can help with self-appraisal and self-support. Self-Instructional Training (SIT -Goldstein and Keller 1987) was developed with this as a central concept. This intervention can help to establish self control in young offenders, thus helping to decrease the arousal which may lead to offending behaviour. Beck et al 1985 followed on from Bowlbys (1977) work on attachment and loss and may take the stance that Michael has a sociotropic personality. This means that he values closeness and the loss of a relationship, a rejection or an experience of social deprivation could affect his mood and leave him feeling confused and isolated, Dryden1996. Hence the abnormal thought which lead to offending. Another use of cognitve techniques could be offered to Michael and his family in the form of Functional Family Therapy if his family were willing to participate. This focuses on family interaction. It uses contingency contracting as a means of changing family interaction in the case of young offenders. It can help to reduce recidivism and have a beneficial effect on the interactions between families. It has become increasingly evident

Sunday, July 21, 2019

Factors Responsible For Military Intervention In Pakistan Politics Essay

Factors Responsible For Military Intervention In Pakistan Politics Essay The modern state of Pakistan was established on 14 August 1947, carved out of the two Muslim-majority wings in the eastern and northwestern regions of British India and comprising the provinces of Balochistan, East Bengal, the North-West Frontier Province, West Punjab and Sindh. The controversial, and ill-timed, division of the provinces of Punjab and Bengal caused communal riots across India and Pakistan millions of Muslims moved to Pakistan and millions of Hindus and Sikhs moved to India. Disputes arose over several princely states including Muslim-majority Jammu and Kashmir, whose Hindu ruler had acceded to India following an invasion by Pashtun tribal militias, leading to the First Kashmir War in 1948. From 1947 to 1956, Pakistan was a Dominion of Pakistan in the Commonwealth of Nations. It became a Republic in 1956, but the civilian rule was stalled by a coup dà ©tat by General Ayub Khan, who was president during 1958-69, a period of internal instability and a second war with India in 1965. His successor, Yahya Khan (1969-71) had to deal with a devastating cyclone which caused 500,000 deaths in East Pakistan and also face a civil war in 1971. Economic grievances and political dissent in East Pakistan led to violent political tension and military repression that escalated into a civil war. After nine months of guerrilla warfare between the Pakistan Army and the Indian backed Bengali Mukti Bahini militia, Indian intervention escalated into the Indo-Pakistani War of 1971, and ultimately to the secession of East Pakistan as the independent state of Bangladesh.Pakistans history has been characterized by periods of military rule, political instability and conflicts with neighboring India. It is the sixth most populous country in the world and has the second largest Muslim population after Indonesia. Pakistan also has the second largest Shia Muslim population. MilItary and its characteristics:- The army plays very important role in the process of development in most of the developing societies. Now military has become key decision-making body of the devel- oping countries. In some countries they have unified thier country after breakdown of political process. There are many example where armed forces have librated their nationcountries . Therefore army in the developing countries not only protects territories from foreign aggression but they have played a significant role in politics. But in some countries it is now routine that army intervenes in political process of the developing countries. Pakistan and Bangladesh are glaring examples. Feature Of Armies In Developing Countries:- As many countries got freedom from the colonialism they concentrated on getting huge and modern trained army The most of developing countries spent and are still spending a huge amount to ensure their security and integrity. As a result they got huge armies. Pakistan, India , China, and Bangladesh etc are the vittal examples. They want to reduce their standing armies, but because of so many factors they are not in position to reduse. More than two third budget is spent on armies and socio-economic aspect are comparatively weak so, we see that of lives and welfare activities are going to downfall on the cost of military development. Master Oriented Armies:- The newly independent countries organize their armies on the pattern of their coloniel armies.Chain of authority, training, wages and other related factors were copied from the coloniel imperial armies. Now the whole coloniel traditions are dying and the armies have started developing new and modern style. Despite the end of colonialism in most of the developing nations pattern , structure and other rules and regulations are higly influenced of colonial armies. Well-Trained And Disciplined:- Army is highly trained discipline instituion in the developing countries. Armed forces are properly trained and are kept according to the face of time. Because of their discipline and training they are to provide assistance in political process of the third world societies particularly in improving administration and organizational effectiveness. When there is political disturbance and break down of the constitutional machinery , so the only savior is a disciplined fores that is army and this is major cause of military intervention in politics. Its severe training and strict discipline keeps in isolated from social life. Respectable Institution:- As the duty of army is to protect the motherland on the cost of their life ,so they are extended full respect by their people. They enjoy a lot of prestige and honour in the society. Army is the custodian of borders both terristorial and ideological of the country in the time of peace and war. This is ahonourableprofeesion in the thirdworld countries. Army In Polotics:- Since the end of the second World War(WW2) intervention of milatary in politics of these societies has almost always been related to major political, economical and social changes in these states. The political activiteis of milatary are generally in the reaction of tension. Main duty of the army is to defend baoders of the counteries but in developing world, army is found in politics. Main causes of military intervention is politics is failiure of civilian constitutional machinery, political unrest trend of military interfernce , to modernize the country , global conspiracy and taste of power etc . Its very pathetic that armed force divert from their own function i.e defense of the countires ang get involve in national politics. Most of the newly emerged states of Asia, African and Latin American countries are under milatary rule. Ambitious Of Avancement:- Many officers are trained in advanced countries. They are to visit developed countries. They bring with them sentiments of modernization their own armies. The army leaders particularly the younger and more desirous are extremly sensitive to the need of moderniztion and technological advancement. So, their orientation plays vittal role in development and advancement. Conservative Outlook:- Army is the most facilitated insdtitution and the belive in status QUO. Army is often conserative and they would not talk revolutionary policies and steps in the social stucture for advancemrnt. IN developing countries armies strickly follow their respective ideologies. For instance, in Pakistan regime initiated the process of islamization and appose socialism and other progressive and westernized ideolgies. So, they are the strong adherents of particular ideology and are generally conservative in outlook. The Most Powerfull Organization:- In the presence global situation of armed compitition , every gevernment is to stive to make army the strongest institution. They are give high standard training and are equipped with modern weapons. Because of regional conflicts space several developing countries are to maintain huge armies. They have been spending a major portion of their budget on armed forces.i.e India and Pakistan where more then two third of the national budget is allocated to army. This is the reason why the armed forces is one of the strongest instituitions in the developing societies. A positive aspect of its powerfullness is facilitation in defence but on the other side , no government is in position to challange their powerfull position. theri demand are ever considered positively. Influence Of Western Tecnology:- The armies of developing countries have been influence by western military technolgy, especially war tecnolgy. Obout all of the countries have taken the WW2 type of army as their models. these nations are to creat a form of organization that is typical of an particular to super nation. Army industries is marching from good to better. Every statse is trying to gain NUCL-EAER and MISSILE technology. Military Intervention In politics:- It is common feature of developing countries that their politics is dealt by military. Its major causes have been discued. In some of the developing societies, some democratic governments welcome military intervention in politics in order to restore order to political life. But it have been observed that militert intervention in civilian politics o thrid world is a crusing obstruction to political development. Military intervention in the third world proved false the belief that the developing states will manage their affiars in a non military fashion. TABLE-1 Military Coups In The Third World (1945- 1972) Region Seccessfull Coups Unseccesfull Coups Total Average interval Latine America 1945-72 53 28 81 4 months Asia 1947-72 21 21 42 7 months Middle east 1949-72 41 42 83 3 months Africa 1960-72 32 46 78 2 months This table shows that a coup attempted once every four months in latine America. Seven months in Asia ,once in three months in Middle East and once every to months in Africa. TABLE-2 Third World In Which Military Occupy Exicutive Position (1976-1977) Region Number of states Latine America 9 Asia 4(Afghanistan,Pakistan,Bangladesh) Middle East 4(Algeria,Iraq,Libya) Africa 18 The degree of military rule in third world certifies the instbility and un effectiveness of the civilian governments since the WW2. TABLE-3 High Influential Position Occupied By Military (1976) Region Number of States Latine America 7 Asia 5(Burma,Indonesia,South korea,Pakistan) Middle East 6(Eqypt,Jordon,Morooco) Africa 5 TABLE-4 States In Which Military Occupy Low Influence(1976) Region Number of states Latine 10 Asia 14 Middle East 8(Bhrein,UAE,Yamen,Tunisai and Iran) Africa 14 In all thes nations the leaders are fully aware that any deteriorotion in public order or the financial affairs could bring the military to power.In large number of the third world states , the military executive live his military service and got elected as civilian executive. Military Intervention In Pakistan(brief background):- Martial law has been declared in Pakistan three times. In the first instance President Iskander Mirza abrogated the Constitution in 1958 and declared Martial Law over the country. The second instance was when General Yahya Khan declared martial law in March, 1969 after Mirzas successor, Gen. Ayub Khan handed over power to him. The 3rd Martial Law declared by the Gen. Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq. After several tumultuous years, which witnessed the secession of East Pakistan, politician Zulfikar Ali Bhutto took over in 1971 as the first civilian martial law administrator in recent history, imposing selective martial law in areas hostile to his rule, such as the countrys largest province, Balochistan. Following widespread civil disorder, General Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq overthrew Bhutto and imposed martial law in its totality on July 5, 1977 in a bloodless coup dà ©tat. Unstable areas were brought under control through indirect military action, such as Balochistan under Martial Law Governor, General Rahimuddin Khan. Civilian government resumed in 1988 following General Zias death in an aircraft crash. On October 12, 1999, the government of Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif was dissolved, and the Army took control once more. But no Martial Law was imposed. General Pervez Musharraf took the title of Chief Executive until the President Rafiq Tarar resigned and General Musharraf became President. Elections were held in October 2002 and Mir Zafarullah Khan Jamali became Prime Minister. Jamali premiership was followed by Chaudhry Shujaat Hussain and Shaukat Aziz. While the government was supposed to be run by the elected Prime Minister, there was a common understanding that important decisions were made by the President General Parvez Musharraf. On November 3, 2007, President General Pervez Musharraf declared the state of emergency in the country which is claimed to be equivalent to the state of Martial Law as the constitution of Pakistan of 1973, was suspended, and the Chief Justices of the Supreme Court were fired. On November 12, 2007, President General Pervez Musharraf issued some amendments in the Military Act, which gave the Armed forces some additional powers. Reasons/factors Of Military Intervention In politics( Military As a stong political group) Military intervention as contitutional caretaker:- A country where indicators of political crises, confusion or corruption are seen,which are to paralize the constitutional setup,the military may interven in politics. If a civilian govenment fails,there is a state of confusion, so, the most powerfull and dicipline of the country is required to control the situation. Such a force is army. So,army jumps in politics. It introduces political reform and to establish the conditions under which political authority may be returned to civilian government. In Pakistan General Ayub khan, Gen. Yahya Khan ,Gen. Zia ul haq and Gen. Pervaz Musharaf intervended in politics, because of of deteriorated political condition. The most important example of the military in this constitutional caretaker role is the army intervention in Turkish politics. Some states constitutionally in powers army to intervene e.g In china and Turkey. In pakistan formation of the national security council is a step towards this fact. In many coutries the course of politics since independence has been assessed by and in monoply of a small group of society. The leadership generally comes from the feudal army-bureaucracy. In pakistan ,the story of military intervention and bureaucratic control of politics starts from the assassination of Liaquat Ali Khan, in October 1951. The story starts when an ex-buearucrate , Ghulam Mohammad become the Governer general after Liaquat Ali Khan. With the appionment of Gen. Ayub Khan pakistans first pakistani Commander in Chief in early 1951, the civil and military bureaucracy began to strenght their grip on power. Gen. Ayub khan teamed up with defense secreatry Major Gen Sikandar Mirza to tighten his grip. if we analyze our contitutional history ,we may find niether the politicians nor the military leaders repected the constitution. Gen. Zia once proudly proclaimed that he could tear up constitution and thtow it into the dustbin when ever he likes. He practised his quotation by men ding the constitution through EIGHT AMANDMENT . The second constitutional assembly, selected by the provincial legislatures, finally approve the first constitution that was enforced on 23 march 1956. Major Gen. Sikandar mirza the first president of pakistan,on 7 october 1958 abrogated the 1956 constitution and aprrove Gen. Ayub khan as martial law administrator. The 1973 constitution destorted by over democratic and military rulers. It has also been put into abeynce by two military governments. Gen. Musharaf once said that constitution is inferior to people intrests. Army roles in politics is now being formaulize through national security concil. The Military A Head OF Reform or Revolution:- Democracy is a very fragile and sensitive form of govenment. Sometimes military jumps in politics as a revolutionary force. Military intervention lead by Sadam Hussian and Muamar Qadaffi are the examples. I n this pattern military assumes power and strives to creat new political institutions that, in long runs will pave ways for effective civilian government .Sometimes military seize power to introduce reform and to boost development in the country. The progrm of BASIC DEMOCRACY by Ayub Khan in pakistan is notable example Jamal Nassar forceable enter the Egytion political scene to introduce -social economical, and political which were essential pre-requisites of democracy To Back Civilian Government:- Final pattern of military intervention in politics include these cases in which the militry does not gain political power. But remains as a force in politicla process. Setting conditions for better performance of civilian government. In pakistan, Gen. Pervez Musharraf played this role. The extent of military involvment in the democratic regime can be best explain by last statement of chief of army staff Gen Musarraf. While speaking on Feburary 8 1999 at Sialkot,he outlined broadly that the pakistan army , beside defending the national frontiet , has been helping the government to stblize various institution and improving the law and oreder situation with in country. He said The arm forces will continue assesting the govenment in improving the institution performance beside aiding the civilian administration in its effort to keeep law and order intact. Failure Of Civil Administration:- When civil administration and democratic institution fails to run the state ,so there is no alternative but the most powerfull and discipline institution intervenes is army. What were the hiddrn designsof Ayub Khan but appearently failure of demoratic institutions paved way for his developed disrespect for politician anddemoratic institutions. Unfortunately, Ayub was followed by Gen. Yahya Khan who along with some politicians divided pakisatan. Gen. Zia intervened when Bhutto was reluctant to arrange free and impartial polls. People and political parties started campaigns against him and his dictatorial rule and military jumped in politics. Gen. Musharraf intervend in politics saying that civil administration has fail to satisfy people. The same is the case in Bangladesh. Political unrest invites military to seize power. Lack of Patriotic Leadership:- If we analyze political history of many developing states, we may conclude that army ever took over power from the political leadership only to protect people from misrule and tyranny. The militry leader ever procalimed that they seized power not for thier own sake because some body had to rescue the country from abuse of state powers. After the creation of pakistan Muslim League loss its prestige because it was a group of oppertunist. No one was serious about nation building. Analysis of political history reveal that maximum politician prefer that persronal intrests and ever secrifies national intrests. Many undevelop country remain in grip of land lards ,industrialists ,khans , nawabs, choudaries and sardars who never care for downtrodden peolple consiquintly unrest among mass paved way for military intervention. Inffective Lagislatures:- Lagislature is an honourable and supreme law making institution .In the third world countries ,quality of lagilatores ever remained weak. There are various factor for example, voting system, lack of consciousness, lack of qualification for lagislators , monoply of self seeking elements political barganing ,LOTA CRACY and floor crossing and irresponsible attitude of the political parties . In law maiking institution fail to satisfiey people by providing effective laws, Lagilature face lack of confidence in such a great situation people want chamge and a rapid change is impossible without military Coup. Same is situation in pakistan and bangladesh. National Problems:- Civil and democratic government is consider very useful and impressive to solve national problems. We see that democratic governments never tried to solve peoples problems inspite of solving thier problems,thes democratic regimes multiply the fire. Corruption ,deteriorated law and order situation ,imflation, unemployment and injustce etc ever reach there peek and democracy planted disapear in heats of people. If democracatic means fails to solve problem then people concentrated their eyes on army. Army is compelled for coup. Military Will to Rule:- If we study early satatements of military Generals in power, we may conclude that deteriorated political conditions and unrest compelled them to intervene. In the early days of military rule every ruler said that army have now desire to rule but to control the situation and shift power to civil adminriistration .It has been seen that militayr government then become reluctant to go back to barraks. They tried to deep root thier grip and they rule for long time so, taste of power is another cause of military intervention in politics. Corrupt Bureaucracy:- Thier are two main reasons for the defunct state of civil administrator setup, which are coruption and political interferance. Colonial governaments had framed civil service to facilitate governments and had less concern with people welfare . This satuation produce and developed coruption in all forms and all levels in bureaucracy. Bureaucracy has capability to mould public opinion as disired . The civil service of pakistan or the cream bureaucracy comaanded great influence over the business community in terms of granting liseces and contracts. A section of pakistani civil servants have destroy national resources and wealth with bear hand .The situation once had reach such a severe level that the central government promulgated the civil services(prevention of corruption) rules in 1953. In pakistan when Gen. Yahya Khan took over he sacked 303 senior civil servents including 38 csp officers and 16 other officers. There after Z A Bhutto as Prime Minister sacked 1400 civil service office r and intoduce political interference in running the bureaucracy . Gen. Zia ul haq introduced institutionalize induction of military officers. Gen. Pervaz Musharraf also interoduce national accountabillity to check bureaurcracy corruption. Exessive military invovlement in civil affiars is itself a serious problem. Military As The Stongest Institution:- As already explained that incase of political unrest and chaos , the only discipline and the stongest force is army. It jums into political arena to govern the defunct state or to assist civil adminitration at least. In biggest peace-time mobilization of the armed forces , a quarter million military personnel were employed to conduct the fifth population census in March 1998. Almost 30,000 personnel deputed to manage the water and power. Development Authority (WAPDA). The setting up of controversial military courts, which are not as man power intensive as the involvment with other civilian administrative activities,symbolizes the power of the military over the citizens. Non Constitutional Role of Army:- Many decveloing countries are multi-racial having low literacy rate and they are socially economically and politically instble. In such a situation democracy cannot go ahead in a soft and transperant manner. Various factors compel army to interven in poltitics because in such a deteriorated situation civil administration fails to cope with . Sometimes our constitutional michenary totally or partially fails and there is no feasible legal way to deal with constitutional breakup. Gen. Musharff interoduced a system of military role in politics in the form of National Security Concil but role of this body is criticized by our politicians. Perhapa its role is more than representative and democratic institution. International Causes:- Some of the critics and politicians are of the view that because of the specific importance of the developing world in international politics, global powers relutant to see these states stable and prospurous. When these states start to develop and march on the roads of stsbility ,some foreign conspirators try to destablize them .It is said that when pakistan was near to adopt its first constitution ,its constitutions was destroy. Military ruled for along time .Dictatorship was followed by other dictatoship. It is said that Zia jumped into politics because USA wanted to remove Bhutto who was Anti-American and advocated unification of the world of Islam. Lack of Democratic Culture:- Democracy is a very fragile and sensitive form of government .It has certain pre-requisites like democratic culture ,effective political parties ,good leadership and tolernce etc. Political parties are the spirit of modern democracy. Unfortunatly political parties have various problems and parties are not in positon to provide people a creative political enviroment. Machiavelli says an evil canbe resisted by commiting a greater evil. Majority is ignorant and nations are generally corrupt. So ignorant and corrupt nations can be deaflt with violence and force. Violence and force is possible in dictatorship .This is the reasons why we repeatedly see military rule in many states. Conclusion:- Impacts Of Military Intervention In Politics:- Military is very respestable intitution for its responsivlitlity is to defend motherland that is very respected duty modern age is the age of democracy and dectatorship in any form is dislike. In pakistan intervention of military in politics give the given result. Place in The International Community:- In international community a nation place is assesed by keeping in view certain factors of whci the most important factor is the FORM OF GOVERNMENT in that country. Those states are honourable where there is is real democracy that is rule of means of BALLOTS. Military government means of BULLETS. Unfortunatly our history is full of military coups. This situation present as a backword and illetrate nation in the globle brotherhood. Lack of Human rights:- It has been observed that ,ilitary is to rule by means of force. According to Jean Jacque Rousseau Will not force bases of state. Overwhelming presence of military officers in civilian administration becomes a source of disturbance in democratic culture. In a military Government human freedom and liberties are comparitively restricted. Political process cannot go to develop. The military administrator are to deal with civil affiars in militay style. Militrizing civil society is therefore, dangerous so far as human right and liberties are concerned. Increase in Military Budget:- It has been seen in variuou causes that Military Generals are to rule supported by army and army rulers in reverse to increase their facilities ot atleat to increase defense budget. Maximum portion of national budget is allocated to military. When army goes back to barrakcks then civilian government is not in position to cut allocation of budget. Becuase there is fear of diffrences between civil government and ARMY. Diversion of Military From defense:- Civil administrator involve military in states affiar in order to cope with mal-administration unfortunately, military involvement is a shortcut mean. Civilian government never concentrate on reforms and to utilize civil servants efficintly. A diturbing thing is to use the military for civilian administrated work like conducting the census, managing the sevice sector, melting out justice and monitering state-owned schools an So on It converts the military attention from theri professional responasbility. Military leaders are often unfimiliar with politics and current political structure of country so, the use massive force which cause as failure to their rule. Distubance in Civil Services:- When military intervenes in politics a cold war between civil and military bueaurcracy starts. Today , while senior military officer have been appionted as govener and as Chief Executives of public sector corporations, while in our history thei retied counterparts have contested election and become political leader. This cold war proves fattle for nationl development. To relax Society:- In Pakistan militayr government is the child of political crises, Unconstitutionak situations politicak barganing,corruption ,inflation, violation of merit social and economical problem in a democratic system invite arny to intervene. Our people are corruptby nature and illiteracy is a chronic issue here,such an enviornment cannot be cleaned with politeness and gentleness.Such a corrupt society may be controlled or reformed by means of force. Military is a source of fear,force and terror. Therefore, military government bringd timely relief in society. Effort of Civilian Govenment to Reduce Military Power:- Sometime civilian government tries to reduce the power,finance and influence of military or wants to bring any sort of change in army so,in reaction army officers refuse to abey that action of civilian government and they overthrow the government. ______________________________________________________________________________ SOURCES:- 1) Political Development Social Change And Reseach Methodolgy BY:- PROF. Bakhtiar 2) Pakistan Affairs BY:- PROF. Ikram Rubbani 3) Web:-

Saturday, July 20, 2019

Anorexia Essay -- essays research papers

Anorexia Nervosa Have you ever felt fat or self-conscious about the way you looked? These are questions that we may ask ourselves everyday, but anorexics ask themselves these questions every minute of everyday. Questions like this haunt an anorexic’s conscience and ruin the way she/he perceives herself/himself. Anorexia is a very dangerous mental illness because it has many life- threatening effects.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Anorexia is not a choice to be made. It is brought on by many pressures to be thin and it clouds one’s ability to see herself/himself as she/he really is, which is usually dangerously thin. Anorexia nervosa is an eating disorder. Sufferers starve themselves and have extreme weight loss. When starving themselves, anorexics may suffer from terrible hunger pains, but feel rewarded when they can make it through a certain time period, usually a day, then work up to two days and so on. Anorexics are terrified of gaining weight. Food and weight become obsessions. Many of these obsessions may show up in strange eating rituals, such as moving food around their plate and preparing a huge dinner and then refusing to eat any of it. An anorexic’s diet will include restricting her/his total calorie intake to fewer than one thousand calories a day. Many anorexics avoid fattening, high calorie foods and also eliminate meats. Their diet mainly consists of almost completely low-calorie vegetables, such as lettuce and carrots, or popco...

A Community for Everyone :: Internet Cyberspace Web Essays

A Community for Everyone The Net is not one thing. Its like asking: Are women comfortable in bars? Thatss a silly question. Which woman? Which bar?(171). Amy Bruckman, founder of MediaMoo, a virtual community using text, compares Internet communities with bars. She talks about how different people are comfortable in different bars just as certain people are interested in certain online communities. Just because one person does not like one bar does not mean that the bar should be shut down. That person should simply not go to that particular bar. He or she should find another bar. In Finding Ones Own in Cyberspace, Amy Bruckman proves that the Internet does offer or can possibly offer an online community that can fit anyones needs. Diversity is the internets greatest strength. Communities can be as exclusive online as they are in real life. Anyone can have an effect on his or her community, whether by starting a community up or just by having an input. Anyone can find a community online. To start off, the in ternets greatest asset is its diversity. A person can find just about anything he or she wants on the Net, including an accepting community. The internet is unbelievably vast and diverse. It may take a little time but Bruckman argues, If you keep an open mind, however, you may come across something good(172). As will be gone into later, people need to stop focusing on the negatives and concentrate on the positive aspects and possibilities in order to appreciate what the internet has to offer. Now, finding a particular Website should be becoming simpler than ever. With new online architecture, it is becoming more and more easy to find these sites: Depending on choice of background color and texture, type styles, and special fade-in effects, for instance, a Web page can feel playful or gloomy, futuristic or old-fashioned, serious or fun, grown-up or child-centered(178). Online communities are making it simple to identify with them. In some cases, a person would not even have to read t he text in order to know if he or she has found the community he or she is looking for. He or she would just need to look at background or images. For instance, if someone were looking for information on soccer, the website would show a picture of a soccer ball and the person would immediately know that the website is soccer related.

Friday, July 19, 2019

Amazonian Economy and Exploitation Concerns Essay -- Brazil Amazon Eco

Amazonian Economy and Exploitation Concerns The economy of Manaus, Brazil and of the Amazon Basin draws from the many natural resources of the region. The indigenous populations of the Amazonian floodplains participate minimally in the market economy, sometimes selling fish during productive seasons. Their lifestyles are predominantly self-subsistence, so there is no real need for cash. Manaus, on the other hand, is a large, developed city with a thriving local market and healthy exportation market. Products of the rainforest and river used in the market include fish, rubber, brazil nuts, hardwoods, and other plant fibers. Extracted and mined from the earth are minerals such as manganese ore, diamonds, gold, and petroleum. Eco-tourism, in which outsiders tour the land and river, is a part of the local economy. Chemical production is also a part of Manaus’ economy. Exploitation has been a concern since the Europeans began colonizing Brazil, but it has been an area of concern more recently. One exploited population, the native peoples, is often overlooked. Colonizing Europeans...

Thursday, July 18, 2019

Foreshadowing in Steinbeck’s Of Mice and Men Essay

The word foreshadow is a literary term used to describe how the author discreetly gives clues to the reader of the events later to occur. The touching realistic fiction novelette Of Mice and Men is written by John Steinbeck. George and Lennie, two men who have become close friends over time, travel together to a ranch to pursue their dream as a team. George is considered to be Lennie’s caretaker, for Lennie is mentally challenged. Throughout the novelette Of Mice and Men, foreshadowing takes a considerable role in the most important chapters of George and Lennie’s journey together. The events that develop foreshadow other events that will echo the primary event in a distinctive way. John Steinbeck uses foreshadowing and other literary elements as the structure of his many literary works of art. The three events that foreshadow the future are George telling Lennie to return to the river if trouble occurs, Candy having to kill his dog, and a heron killing a snake. In the beginning, when George and Lennie are at the river, George tells Lennie to return to that exact location to silently hide in the brush and wait for him if he gets in any trouble. Lennie has done bad things in the past, and George wants to make sure that Lennie has somewhere to go that’s out of harm’s way. â€Å" ‘Lennie – if you jus’ happen to get in trouble like you always done before, I want you to come right here an’ hide in the brush’ † (15). In the past, Lennie has gotten into trouble while working on a ranch, and both George and Lennie didn’t have anywhere to go. George knows that Lennie is bound to have history repeat itself, and make the same mistakes, so he tells Lennie to remember where the river is located. George’s action foreshadows that later on, Lennie will have to return to the river. George makes sure that he can get Lennie away from any danger that can harm him, but would also know where heà ¢â‚¬â„¢d be. As the story progresses, Candy tells George that he should have shot his dog himself instead of a stranger, because he knew the dog the best and his moment of lacking authority allowed him to regret his decision. Candy has had his dog since it was just a puppy, so he has a strong connection with his dog. Carlson thinks the dog is smelly, ancient, and becoming more and more useless everyday, so he convinces Candy to allow him to shoot his dog. â€Å" ‘I ought to of shot that dog myself, George. I shouldn’t have ought to of let no stranger shoot my dog’ † (61). When Candy confides in George, he admits that he is in the wrong when he decides to allow a complete stranger kill his dog instead of doing it himself. Candy, wanting to have shot his dog himself, foreshadows how George will feel about how Lennie will be disciplined. Although Candy didn’t have the strength to kill his own dog, George realizes that he’s strong enough to discipline Lennie i n a fair and painless way. Lastly, when Lennie is hiding in the brush at the river, a water snake is killed by a motionless heron off in the distance. The water snake was gliding on the river and is unaware of the heron that was standing still awaiting its arrival. â€Å" A water snake glided smoothly up the pool . . . and came to the legs of a motionless heron that stood in the shallows. A silent head and beak glanced down and plucked it out by the head . . .† (99). The snake was gracefully moving across the water, and swims to its death, negligent of its future. When Lennie is killed, he is looking at the scenery of the mountains and at the river imaging his and George’s dream, completely unaware of George, standing behind him with a gun. In the end, both Lennie and the snake met their fate of death. Overall, Steinbeck’s usage of foreshadow is applied to show how life’s events are clues to the future. George wants to protect Lennie, but he also wants to make sure that Lennie has a safe place to run to. Candy fails to accomplish a difficult task and helps George to identify if he’ll have the strength to do what is right or not. Death meets Lennie and the snake face to face unexpectedly. In life, has the reader ever looked at a painting and thought, â€Å"What did every brush stroke accomplish?† The creator of a work of art wants the viewer to see their artwork as a whole, but to view the specifics that created the image as desired. Each brush stroke accomplishes forcing mankind to experience various emotions, memories, inspirations, and an understanding of the meaning the piece was supposed to contain. A single brushstroke can foretell what the future may hold, although it’s not always distinct.

Wednesday, July 17, 2019

Is China’s Investment in Africa an Example of Neo-Colonialism or Is It an Example of South-South Development

Is chinas Investment in Africa an example of Neo-Colonialism or is it an example of South-South Development? chinawargon has been essentially involved in the study of Afri base countries in recent years, with an estimated 1 hotshot and scarce(a) thousand thousand Chinese pile now residing in Africa. Trade between china and Africa was worthy in excess of $100 meg in 2010, which shows how issueant the relationship between the two areas has become. How invariably, there are questions touch whether chinaware is merely using Africa for its knowledge wellbeings rather than investing in ontogenesis of the poorest continent in the world.Angola Angola is Chinas biggish-mouthedst traffic partner with a flock value of $24. 8 billion in 2010. Angola is a country with vast oil colour reserves and is now Chinas largest supplier of oil shipping one million barrels every day. This tote up has caused more Chinese TNCs to setup operations in Angola. These TNCs defy brought with them their own Chinese workers due to their reputation for a exalted level of speed and efficiency in their work. These workers earn what would be a wide wage for Angolans (? 20 per day).They return this silver back to China meaning that income is disoriented from Angola and overly there is a decline in employment opportunities for Angolan workers, which doesnt help to cleanse the high unemployment situation. However, many Angolans appreciate Chinese investment is a massive positive due to the newly infrastructure, goods and services that will be unattached for the public to purchase. The Chinese are service to reconstruct a main rail line line that runs through a large part of Africa. This has al deplorableed small business people to fail their goods all across Africa.The consequence of this is an attach in consumption for the economies as trade is vigorous and this could cause an change magnitude in economic growth if trading continues and in addition grows. Loca ls think that Chinese fetch done a good byplay on the railways as they are devising more money (increase in bar of living) However, the railway is heavily linked with oil. China only provides loans and cheap finance (used to cave in for railway) with Angola in return for the oil. So theyre not necessarily just maturation a ground, they want to gain themselves in return.Oil is a key commodity ask for production, which is largely what Chinas parsimoniousness is made up of. Chinese facial expression companies also receive lucrative contracts, so income once again is flowing back to China. So from this, we cans see that China has a neo-colonialism sort relationship with Angola, but also has helped improve the warning of living for their people. Zambia Zambia has also experienced interest from China. Tourism is one of Zambias most important industries due to its scenery, stomach and animal diversity.The Chinese tourist firmament is growing massively, and will be inborn fo r nations like Zambia in the future. However, factors of Chinese coating mean that Zambian wildlife is macrocosm threatened. change magnitude numbers of elephants adjudge been killed for their ivory, even though the world-wide trade of it is illegal. But, its price on the black market has been soaring. Ivory is being made into chopsticks in China once it is exported. Also, many Zambian traders resent the Chinese competition. Zambians have lost a smoke of income to Chinese sellers, and indigenous industries could be confused by Chinese competition.Chinese sellers have also treated their workers terribly. Zambia has one of the largest supplies of copper in the world, and the Chinese Metal Ferrous assort now owns the mine. This is an example of exploitation of resources as they will export it back to China, and Zambia loses a great opportunity to generate large quantities of income. This an example of the Chinese taking as much as possible and adult little back to the local e conomy. This shows that China has had a completely negative contact on Zambia as a nation, and is a clear example of how neo-colonialism still can exist.Zimbabwe Zimbabwe has experienced terrible economic problems recently. It has been realise with the second highest inflation rate ever recorded due to hyperinflation and the rapid accrue in value of their currency. It has been run for 30 years by Robert Mugabe. Western governments have imposed countless sanctions for his regimes terrible record on valet rights. However, China has supported Mugabe on the international stage and the Chinese government has inappropriate sanctions. Therefore, China is making life tripping for Mugabe to continue to abuse human rights laws.Here again shows how China has had now positive relate on Zimbabwe, and they have decreased the standard of living for its people as Mugabes reign continues. The Democratic Republic of congo The DRC has a vast reserve of copper, diamonds, carbon monoxide and ot her rare metals. It is very important to China has their top import it worthful minerals with a trade value of $50. 6 billion, way above its second largest import of metal ($6. 5 billion). 90% of Katangas minerals go to China as miners sell their minerals to Chinese traders based in Congo.The miners say that the Chinese are effectively thievery from them as the price they pay is so low for these valuable materials. Allegations have also been raised that local workers have been abused. Chinas activity in the DRC is a typical example of neo-colonialism as they are exploiting miners and buying at such low prices it feels like they are being stolen from. Tanzania Tanzania is one of Chinas oldest trading partners. genius of the largest railways in the world, The Tazara Railway was built by Chinese workers in Tanzania, and is a attribute of pride for the country. China also gives Tanzania strong aid and financial support.This is one of the only examples that really shows how China are concerned in developing an African nation and arent exploiting the countrys internal resources for their own gain. Conclusion In conclusion, China is involved in both neo-colonialism and development in African nations. However, I think that they have a greater influence using a neo-colonialist style of interest. They have exploited many nations in Africa, so it is clear that they are trying to benefit their own nation and further increase their impressive rate of growth with cheaper resources for their flourish productive industry.

Only the Strong Survive

Only the Strong Survive

The price of capital has increased.There is a big difference between the shipbuilding market of 2002 and 2013, however.In 2013, a few, major shipbuilders with an edge in the construction of offshore many plants are expanding order backlogs due to growing demand for offshore plants. We anticipate investments in offshore E&P projects will continue to rise, as we expect oil prices will remain high. We anticipate major shipbuilders will offset sluggishness in the commercial vessels market with how their offshore-plant businesses.Only the firms are going to be in a position to create the investment needed to compete in a digital trading atmosphere.[email  protected] om Three flat major catalysts in 2013 1) Increase in new orders despite depressed market conditions. 2) Improved cash flow and balance sheets. 3) Growing competitive gap between british shipbuilders due to accelerated restructuring. Historic low P/B presents attractive valuations We expect Korean shipbuilders will be abl e to maintain their competitive edge regardless of the depressed shipbuilding market.

Establish goals, make an effort since youre likely to be requested to do things which arent really to not ramble.We find Hyundai Mipo Dockyard (010620 KS/Buy/TP: W148,000) to be the best among shipbuilders that focus on mid-to-small vessels. We raise our target price on Samsung Heavy Industries by 5% to W46,200 to reflect its stable earnings and solid order flow; however, we downgrade our rating of Hanjin Heavy I&C (097230 KS/Hold) from Trading Buy to Hold. Three major domestic shipbuildersE cash flow and share performance (Wbn) 10,000 Avg. ash cerebral flow of major shipbuilders (L) Avg.Thus the liberty of everyone is the outcome of solidarity.Three major domestic shipbuildersE order trend and forecast (Wbn) 70,000 60,000 50,000 40,000 30,000 20,000 10,000 0 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 plate 13F Shipbuilding Non-shipbuilding Source: Company data, KDB Daewoo Securities Research Figure 3. KOSPI and shipbuilding stock index trend (1/1999=100) 1,000 KOSPI Shipbuilding stoc k index 800 600 400 200 0 99 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13F 13 14F 14 Source: KDB Daewoo Securities ResearchKDB korean Daewoo Securities Research 2 January 17, 2013 Shipbuilding Three major catalysts in 2013 1. New orders for major Korean shipbuilders to increase sharply In 2013, we expect major Korean shipbuilders will see sharp increases in new orders. Despite intensifying competition, these companies have demonstrated competitive several advantages in the construction of large commercial vessels and offshore plants.

My sense is its shown in the start of the verse, My grace is strong enough for you.In particular, we expect orders for certain high-priced vessels, including FPSO and LNG FPSO, to increase. 2.Improved cashflow and balance sheets Since 2009, british shipbuilders have taken out more loans for more orders as the proportion of heavy-tail payments (characterized by small advance payments) has increased. On a more positive note, however, we expect shipbuilder loans to decrease (thus improving cashflow) as these contracts are paid off toward late 2013.Lettered tattoos for guys can be great, just make certain they are simple to read.Second phase of restructuring to further consolidate industry We anticipate the shipbuilding market will remain weak due to the global economic downturn, logical and the tightening of ship financing. We project the current, still-surviving shipbuilding companies will aggressively seek new orders to strengthen backlogs. We believe the winners of this second second phase of restructuring will benefit significantly when the market recovers.Amid the current drop in vessel construction, the percentage of bulk carriers and tankers (out of total orders) has decreased significantly, while the percentage of megacontainerships and LNG carriers has increased.

Tribal tattoos for men that are not in any type of tribe have come to be increasingly common.Another risk factor is won appreciation, but at current levels, we believe risks are limited, thanks to Korean shipbuildersE technological edge, and dollar denominated payment for raw materials, which accounts for 40% of total raw organic material purchase. KDB Daewoo Securities Research 3 January 17, 2013 Shipbuilding Figure 4. Three major domestic shipbuildersE cash flow logical and share performance (Wbn) 10,000 Avg. cash flow of major shipbuilders (L) Avg.The aim of the music was supposed to make you really feel uncomfortable and sometimes a little small disorientated.7% 8 0 2008 2012 Source: Clarkson, press release, KDB Daewoo Securities Research Figure 6. Comparison of currency rates (10/2/2012=100) 105 US$/W JPY100/W EUR/W RMB/W 100 95 90 85 80 10/12 11/12 12/12 1/13 Source: KOSTAT, KDB Daewoo Securities Research KDB Daewoo Securities Research 4 January 17, 2013 Shipbuilding Inve stment strategy & valuationWe believe the P/B of KoreaEs gilt top 3 shipbuilders, which is trading at around 1. 0x, should rebound to 1. 2x, a level seen historically as the low, thanks to the aforementioned three major catalysts.

old Folks who make the decisions.nd Sembcorp Marine (Singapore companies specialized in offshore plant). In light of the ongoing eurozone crisis and unstable global economy, shipbuilding new shares are expected to trade between a P/B of 1. 0x~1. 3x.Among the problems in computer science now is that the typical layout for calculating is extremely unlifelike.Figure 7. Major shipbuildersE ROE, P/B trends (Market cap, Wtr) 4. 0x (%) 50 3. 0x 40 90 60 2.

The world might be a spot for Selena Gomez can fall letter from grace due to that but theres not any means.New order trends (US$bn) 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 HHI SHI HMD Figure 10. Order backlog trends (US$bn) 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 07 08 09 10 11 12 HHI SHI HMD Source: Company Data, KDB Daewoo Securities Research Source: Company Data, KDB Daewoo Securities Research Figure 11. Sales breakdown by business unit (Wtr) 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 10 HHI 11 10 SHI 11 Construction Other Refinery Finance Green potential energy Electro electric systems Construction equipment Engine & machinery Industrial plant & engineering Offshore & engineering Shipbuilding Figure 12. Hyundai Heavy IndustriesE P/B upward trend Market cap,Wbn) 42,000 35,000 28,000 21,000 14,000 7,000 0 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13F 13 3.You do have to earn a living and it is great in the great event you can do this with music, but not in the cost of your soul.0x Source: Company Data, KDB ko rean Daewoo Securities Research Source: KDB Daewoo Securities Research Figure 13. Samsung Heavy IndustriesE P/B trend (Market cap,Wbn) 14,000 12,000 10,000 8,000 1. 0x 6,000 4,000 2,000 0 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 13F 2. 0x 6.

Men have another reason behind choosing a mate.5x 6,000 2. 0x 1. 5x 4,000 1. 0x 2,000 0.Such men want the endurance to keep a high degree of combat readiness.0 Figure 18.EPS growth-P/E comparison (P/E, x) 20 Keppel 2. 0 Sembcorp Mitsubishi HHI 1. 0 Guangzhou Sumitomo giant Mitsui (ROE, %) 0.

It will happen once begun.6 Market EPS Growth (13F, %) 19. 1 P/E (13F, x) 8. 5 Market P/E (13F, x) 9. 0 KOSPI 1,977.There is simply no doubt.1 Foreign Ownership (%) 19. 6 Major Shareholder(s) Mong-Jun Jung et al. (21. 31%) Treasury shares (19.

Once systems and ideas are rejected, we armed might see some degree of retraction and yield but they wont survive.7 Relative -0. 9 -12. 6 -27. 1 One step back for twenty two steps forward ? ? ? Targeting orders of US$29.However, we expect the company to record robust orders in 2013, boosted by a pickup in the offshore/onshore plant market. The companyEs earnings how are anticipated to turn around in 2H13, while its cash flow should improve on massive orders and an increase in heavy-tail payments. HHIEs shares how are trading at a 2013F P/E of 8. 5x and a P/B of 1.In 2013, however, the company will be able to achieve its order target of US$29. 7bn in light of new its strong determination to revamp its business structure. 2) The company is anticipated to receive massive offshore/onshore plant orders.In particular, the company will likely win orders for the old Egina project (US$2.

4) Exports of construction equipment and ultra-high voltage transformers should also increase on recoveries in the US and Chinese economies. ) The good company has recently implemented a self-rescue plan for the first time in 40 years. While the number of applications for HHIEs early retirement plan (pushed through at end-2012) missed expectations, the company has subsequently carried out structural reform measures. We expect the companyEs long-term restructuring efforts to positively affect earnings going forward.7 3,782 6. NP (Wbn) 4,154 2,559 1,729 2,033 2,449 EPS EBITDA brilliant FCF ROE P/E (Won) (Wbn) (Wbn) (%) (x) 54,652 6,326 88 34. 5 8. 1 33,671 5,473 -504 16.1 8. 5 32,218 4,768 2,297 12. 2 7. 1 P/B (x) 2.9 EV/EBITDA (x) 6. 5 5. 3 8. 5 6.

8 12/12F 54,741 49,759 4,981 2,496 2,485 2,485 110 233 -240 2,595 766 1,829 0 1,829 1,729 100 1,568 1,458 110 3,469 -2,260 6. 3 4. 5 3. 2 12/13F 58,433 52,473 5,960 2,630 3,331 3,331 -448 248 -200 2,882 749 2,133 0 2,133 2,033 100 1,872 1,762 110 4,320 2,005 7.0 3. 9 Statement of Financial Condition (Summarized) Wbn) Current Assets Cash and Cash Equivalents AR & Other Receivables report Inventories Other Current Assets Non-Current Assets Investments in Associates Property, Plant and Equipment Intangible Assets Total Assets Current total Liabilities AP & Other Payables Short-Term Financial Liabilities Other Current Liabilities Non-Current Liabilities Long-Term Financial Liabilities Other Non-Current Liabilities Total Liabilities Controlling Interests Capital Stock Capital economic Surplus Retained Earnings Non-Controlling Interests Stockholders Equity 12/11 23,076 1,610 9,525 6,478 2,359 25,924 973 15,565 2,324 49,001 25,491 14,339 8,903 2,249 5,334 3,224 1,954 30,824 16,379 380 1,100 15,399 1,797 18,177 12/12F 25,628 1,888 10,237 6,897 2,737 24,553 916 15,706 2,290 50,181 23,183 11,605 9,060 2,518 7,460 5,550 1,755 30,643 17,624 380 1,100 16,894 1,915 19,538 12/13F 28,538 3,517 10,927 7,304 2,922 24,365 716 15,703 2,264 52,903 24,136 12,388 9,060 2,688 7,602 5,550 1,896 31,737 19,141 380 1,100 18,682 2,025 21,166 12/14F 30,153 3,469 11,786 7,878 3,151 24,277 566 15,700 2,240 54,430 24,320 13,361 8,060 2,899 6,901 4,550 2,195 31,221 21,074 380 1,100 20,885 2,135 23,208 Cash Flows (Summarized) Wbn) Cash Flows from Op Activities Net Profit Non-Cash Income and great Expense Depreciation Amortization Others Chg in Working Capital Chg in AR & Other Receivables Chg in Inventories Chg in AP & Other Payables Income Tax Paid Cash Flows from Inv Activities Chg in PP&E Chg in Intangible total Assets Chg in Financial Assets Others Cash Flows from Fin Activities Chg in Financial Liabilities Chg in Equity big Dividends Paid Others Increase (Decrease) in Cash Beginning B alance Ending Balance 12/11 276 2,743 3,078 853 85 -860 -4,072 -178 -1,442 -364 -1,474 -888 -1,583 -67 -34 796 347 1,206 0 -411 -448 -269 1,879 1,610 12/12F -1,972 1,829 1,907 899 85 107 -4,572 -512 -453 -3,197 -1,136 -544 -1,074 -60 406 184 2,806 3,484 0 -245 -444 278 1,610 1,888 12/13F 3,082 2,133 2,187 903 86 50 -489 -691 -407 783 -749 -770 -900 -60 0 190 -683 0 0 -245 -438 1,628 1,888 3,517 12/14F 3,345 2,549 2,220 903 84 50 -528 -859 -574 973 -895 -738 -900 -60 0 222 -2,654 -2,000 0 -245 -409 -48 3,517 3,469 Forecasts/Valuations (Summarized)P/E (x) P/CF (x) P/B (x) EV/EBITDA (x) EPS (W) CFPS (W) BPS (W) DPS (W) Payout ratio (%) Dividend Yield (%) Revenue Growth (%) EBITDA Growth (%) Operating Profit economic Growth (%) EPS Growth (%) Accounts Receivable Turnover (x) Inventory Turnover (x) Accounts Payable Turnover (x) ROA (%) ROE (%) ROIC (%) Liability to Equity high Ratio (%) Current Ratio (%) Net Debt to Equity Ratio (%) Interest Coverage Ratio (x) 12/11 12/12F 12/13F 12/14F 7. 6 10. 6 8.7 5. 0 1. 3 1. 1 1.2 5. 2 33,671 22,750 26,750 32,218 46,009 35,699 39,772 45,203 203,367 220,183 240,492 266,237 4,000 0 4,000 4,000 9. 6 0. 0 12.

8 1. 8 43. 8 1. 9 6.5 10. 4 -18. 0 -45. 2 34.6 20. 4 5. 9 6. 0 6.2 8. 3 4. 1 4. 8 5.

1 4. 8 16. 7 10. 2 11.0 11. 2 169. 6 156. 8 150.2 124. 0 40. 8 45. 3 34.6 9. 2 Source: Company data, KDB Daewoo Securities Research estimates KDB Daewoo Securities further Research 9 January 17, 2013 Shipbuilding Samsung Heavy Industries (010140 KS) Buy (Maintain) Target Price (12M, W) 46,200 Share Price (01/16/13, W) 37,850 Expected Return (%) 22. 1 EPS Growth (13F, %) 0. 6 Market EPS Growth (13F, %) 19.

0 Free Float (%) 69. 5 52-Week Low (W) 31,650 52-Week High (W) 42,350 Beta (12M, Daily Rate of Return) 1. 57 Price Return Volatility (12M Daily, %, SD) 2. 3 Foreign Ownership (%) 32.05%) Price Performance (%) 1M 6M 12M ablative Absolute -2. 7 4. 3 12. 3 Relative Stable business operations and earnings to remain intact in 2013 Raise TP by 5% to W46,200; Maintain Buy Raise TP by 5% to W46,200; Maintain Buy We maintain our Buy call on Samsung Heavy Industries (SHI) and raise how our target price 5% to W46,200. In deriving our target price, we applied a 5% premium to the companyEs lowest P/B level since 2005 (1. 3x). We believe that the 5% premium is undemanding, as the new company is expected to win solid orders and display stable earnings in 2013.3x. We think that SHI has strong investment merits in light of its competitive edge, stable earnings, robust growth potential, and cash flow improvement. Investment summary 1) Domestic institutions how are most optimistic on SHI am ong the three largest domestic shipbuilders. SHI has proven its superior competitiveness in the offshore plant business, including FLNG and drillships.

As such, the company will be able to repay its debt and strengthen its financial structure. 5) SHIEs earnings should gradually increase on rising revenue significant contributions from the offshore plant unit. Share price 150 140 130 120 110 100 90 80 1/12 5/12 9/12 1/13 KOSPI Earnings & Valuation Metrics FY 12/10 12/11 12/12F 12/13F 12/14F Revenue (Wbn) 13,146 13,392 14,875 14,980 15,751 OP OP Margin NP (Wbn) (%) (Wbn) 1,433 10. 1,000 1,160 8.7 3,685 1,455 1,556 19. 4 4,021 1,551 282 18. 4 4,044 1,514 931 15. 8 4,396 1,667 978 14.4 8. 6 P/B (x) 2. 1 1. 2 1.4 6. 1 5. 5 4. 5 Notes: All figures are based on consolidated K-IFRS; NP refers to net profit attributable to controlling interests Source: Company data, KDB Daewoo Securities Research estimates Daewoo Securities Research 10 January 17, 2013 Shipbuilding Samsung Heavy Industries (010140 KS/Buy/TP: W46,200) Comprehensive net Income Statement (Summarized) Wbn) Revenues Cost of Sales Gross Profit SG Expenses Operating Profit (A dj) Operating Profit Non-Operating Profit Net Financial Income Net Gain letter from Inv in Associates Pretax Profit Income Tax Profit from Continuing Operations Profit from Discontinued Operations Net Profit less Controlling Interests Non-Controlling Interests Total Comprehensive Profit Controlling Interests Non-Controlling Interests EBITDA FCF (Free Cash Flow) EBITDA Margin (%) Operating net Profit Margin (%) Net Profit Margin (%) 12/11 13,392 11,628 1,763 681 1,083 1,160 -10 -25 -32 1,150 299 851 0 851 851 0 616 616 0 1,455 1,556 10.

2 6. 2 12/13F 14,980 13,017 1,962 764 1,198 1,198 4 -44 0 1,202 268 934 0 934 934 0 925 925 0 1,514 931 10. 1 8. 0 6.6 5. 3 1. 2 5. 4 3,685 5,296 22,582 500 12.0 -14. 9 2. 8 23. 3 3.4 91. 3 25. 8 57. 5 12/12F 9.

0 0. 0 11. 1 6. 6 5.7 5. 8 18. 4 18. 9 182.7. 0 1. 3 5. 5 4,044 5,410 30,381 0 11.2 0. 6 4. 0 27. 1 4.

5 126. 4 -10. 3 69. 5 12/14F 8.0 0. 0 5. 2 10. 1 13.1 6. 4 14. 9 19. 1 121.4 EPS economic Growth (13F, %) 45. 2 Market EPS Growth (13F, %) 19. 1 P/E (13F, x) 13. 1 Market P/E (13F, x) 9.

58 Price Return Volatility (12M Daily, %, SD) 2. 4 Foreign Ownership (%) 18. 1 Major Shareholder(s) Hyundai Samho Heavy Industries et al. (46.We expect HMD to maintain stable rapid growth in orders and earnings, despite the global economic slowdown and eurozone fiscal crisis. Indeed, among small- to mid-sized shipbuilders, HMD is the company most favored by shipowners. Amid an expected further slowdown in the shipbuilding market, the company is anticipated to display distinguished share performance in 2013. Given HMDEs cash holdings of W450bn logical and the value of its stake in Hyundai Heavy Industries (W1.Investment points ) We believe HMD will continue to display outstanding performance among small- to mid-sized Korean british shipbuilders in 2013. Even amid intensifying competition due to limited orders and low ship prices, the company is expected to enjoy stable orders, earnings, and cash flow this year. 2) HMDEs competitiveness comes from its productivity, financing capa bility, and the quality of its products. It also boasts strong cost competitiveness as the company purchases raw materials at relatively lower prices from the Hyundai top Heavy Industries Group.5 3. 3 6M 6. 4 -2. 4 12M 11.

1 4,624 378 8. 2 200 9,992 441 -633 5. 5 11. 2 4,404 126 2.4 13. 1 4,855 230 4. 235 11,770 293 416 7. 4 10.2 1. 0 13. 8 0. 9 8.2 4. 3 12/12F 4,404 4,002 402 276 126 126 41 -8 -2 167 41 126 0 126 131 -5 -274 -265 -9 192 -563 4. 4 2. 9 3.

0 4. 7 4. 9 Statement of Financial Condition (Summarized) Wbn) Current total Assets Cash and Cash Equivalents AR & Other Receivables Inventories Other Current Assets Non-Current Assets Investments in Associates Property, Plant logical and Equipment Intangible Assets Total Assets Current Liabilities AP & Other Payables Short-Term Financial Liabilities Other Current Liabilities Non-Current Liabilities Long-Term Financial Liabilities Other Non-Current Liabilities grand Total Liabilities Controlling Interests Capital Stock Capital Surplus Retained Earnings Non-Controlling Interests Stockholders Equity 12/11 4,134 564 975 283 427 3,691 34 889 340 7,825 3,914 1,774 1,779 361 502 56 420 4,416 3,217 100 91 2,081 191 3,409 12/12F 4,994 418 1,814 231 352 3,632 35 928 341 8,626 4,499 1,850 2,253 396 999 191 781 5,498 2,912 100 90 2,172 215 3,127 12/13F 4,919 468 1,568 243 462 3,675 33 964 344 8,593 4,274 1,905 1,953 416 1,046 141 878 5,320 3,067 100 90 2,323 206 3,273 12/14F 4,878 532 1,4 27 255 486 3,650 31 933 347 8,527 4,071 1,991 1,643 437 993 101 865 5,063 3,267 100 90 2,519 197 3,464 Cash Flows (Summarized) Wbn) Cash Flows from Op Activities Net Profit Non-Cash Income and Expense Depreciation year Amortization Others Chg in Working Capital Chg in AR & Other Receivables Chg in Inventories Chg in AP & Other current Payables Income Tax Paid Cash Flows from Inv Activities Chg in PP&E Chg in Intangible Assets Chg in Financial Assets Others Cash Flows from Fin Activities Chg in Financial Liabilities Chg in Equity Dividends Paid Others significant Increase (Decrease) in Cash Beginning Balance Ending Balance 12/11 -697 202 311 62 1 -213 -1,075 -190 -54 -593 -135 441 -100 -4 400 145 93 245 0 -93 -59 -168 732 564 12/12F -816 126 78 65 2 -12 -969 -220 52 66 -50 150 -112 -4 79 186 516 601 0 -39 -46 -146 564 418 12/13F 489 185 71 64 1 10 291 247 -12 56 -58 -47 -100 -4 0 57 -392 -350 0 -39 -2 50 418 468 12/14F 432 230 62 62 1 30 212 140 -12 86 -73 23 -30 -4 0 57 -391 -350 0 -39 -2 64 468 532 Forecasts/Valuations (Summarized)P/E (x) P/CF (x) P/B (x) EV/EBITDA (x) EPS (W) CFPS (W) BPS (W) DPS (W) Payout ratio (%) Dividend Yield (%) Revenue Growth (%) negative EBITDA Growth (%) Operating Profit Growth (%) EPS Growth (%) Accounts Receivable Turnover (x) Inventory Turnover (x) Accounts Payable Turnover (x) ROA (%) ROE (%) ROIC (%) strict Liability to Equity Ratio (%) Current Ratio (%) Net Debt to Equity Ratio (%) Interest Coverage Ratio (x) 12/11 12/12F 12/13F 12/14F 11. 2 19.9 9. 8 8. 4 0. 8 1.8 8. 6 6. 0 9,992 6,556 9,518 11,770 13,153 9,869 12,760 14,910 146,152 130,821 138,428 148,290 2,000 2,000 2,000 2,000 19. 6 29.6 1. 6 1. 6 11. 7 -4.

5 33. 4 14. 3 -44. 7 -66.4 45. 2 23. 7 6. 1 4.1 19. 5 19. 5 2. 5 3.5 2. 2 2. 7 5. 5 4.

1 10. 7 15. 6 129. 6 175.0 115. 1 119. 8 -18. 0 -4.6 78. 1 109. 7Source: Company data, KDB Daewoo Securities Research estimates KDB Daewoo Securities Research 13 late January 17, 2013 Shipbuilding Hanjin Heavy I&C (097230 KS) Hold (Downgrade) Target Price (12M, W) Share Price (01/16/13, W) 10,000 Expected Return (%) 0. 0 EPS economic Growth (13F, %) RR Market EPS Growth (13F, %) 19.6 52-Week Low (W) 10,000 52-Week High (W) 23,850 Beta (12M, Daily Rate of Return) 1. 43 Price Return high Volatility (12M Daily, %, SD) 2. 7 Foreign Ownership (%) 9. Major Shareholder(s) Hanjin Heavy I Holdings et al (37.

We believe that the companyEs earnings and ready cash flow will not improve for the time being, given its tepid order performance amid the sluggish commercial vessel market, and the front suspension of its Youngdo shipyard due to a strike.Although the company has recently embarked on the development of an industrial site near the Incheon port, the project is unlikely to boost operating gross profit markedly due to high capital requirements and increased interest expenses. As such, the companyEs shares are unlikely to recover in the near term, in our view Although the companyEs shares are trading at a 2013F P/B of just 0. 4x, we believe that their investment merits are low.2) There is a slow growing possibility that the Subic shipyard will take new orders, as it possesses strong price competitiveness. However, as it is difficult to slender build highend vessels at the Subic shipyard, the companyEs earnings are unlikely to recover in the near future. 3) There are many labor-manag ement social issues yet to be resolved, including one related to employees who are currently on leave due to a lack of work. ) Although HHIC is meeting its short-term capital special needs through real estate disposal, the company will likely find it difficult to sell large-scale real estate assets due to the real personal estate market slump.Proceeds from the companyEs planned rights offering (estimated to at W180bn) should be only equivalent to its annual interest expenses. 6M -26. 7 -35. 5 12M -47.5 -103 2,795 76 2. 7 -10 3,071 83 2. 7 -32 EPS EBITDA FCF ROE (Won) (Wbn) (Wbn) (%) -1,496 312 487 -3. 6 -2,006 200 -224 -5.

0 0. 5 0. 4 0. 4 0.9 18. 0 Notes: All figures are based on consolidated K-IFRS; NP refers to net profit attributable to controlling interests Source: Company data, KDB Daewoo Securities Research estimates Daewoo Securities Research 14 January 17, 2013 Shipbuilding Hanjin Heavy I (097230 KS/Hold) Comprehensive national Income Statement (Summarized) Wbn) Revenues Cost of Sales Gross Profit SG Expenses Operating Profit (Adj) Operating Profit Non-Operating Profit Net Financial Income Net Gain letter from Inv in Associates Pretax Profit Income Tax Profit from Continuing Operations Profit from Discontinued Operations Net Profit more Controlling Interests Non-Controlling Interests Total Comprehensive Profit Controlling Interests Non-Controlling Interests EBITDA FCF (Free Cash Flow) EBITDA Margin (%) Operating net Profit Margin (%) Net Profit Margin (%) 12/11 2,892 2,665 227 140 87 108 -190 171 -2 -82 15 -97 0 -97 -97 0 -90 -90 0 200 -224 6. 9 3. 7 -3.0 2. 7 -0. 4 12/14F 3,071 2,764 30 7 224 83 83 -125 150 0 -42 -9 -33 0 -33 -32 0 -57 -56 0 184 146 6. 0 2.9 -2,006 323 36,806 0 0. 0 0. 0 -8. 7 -35.

2 -1. 3 -5. 1 2. 4 276.3 0. 4 24. 0 -2,123 -111 34,182 0 0. 0 0.3 8. 0 3. 9 -1. 5 -5.5 0. 3 12/13F 5. 9 0. 4 16.

8 20. 1 RR 3. 6 9. 8 4.6 87. 1 152. 8 0. 4 12/14F 10.0 9. 9 -5. 8 9. 9 RR 3.8 2. 4 267. 0 81. 7 157.

As of the publication date, Daewoo Securities Co. , Ltd. has been acting as a financial advisor to Hyundai Mipo Dockyard for its treasury stock trust, and other than this, Daewoo Securities has no other special interests in the companies covered in this report.As of the publication date, Daewoo Securities Co.* The target price was determined by the research political analyst through valuation methods discussed in this report, in part based on the analystEs estimate of future earnings. The achievement of the target price may be impeded by risks related to the subject securities and companies, as well as general market and economic conditions. W) 800,000 600,000 400,000 200,000 0 1/11 7/11 1/12 7/12 1/13 korean Hyundai Heavy Industries (W) 60,000 50,000 40,000 30,000 20,000 10,000 0 1/11 7/11 1/12 7/12 1/13 Samsung Heavy Industries (W) 350,000 300,000 250,000 200,000 150,000 100,000 50,000 0 1/11 7/11 1/12 7/12 1/13 Hyundai Mipo Dockyard (W) 50,000 40,000 30,000 20,000 10,000 0 1 /11 7/11 1/12 7/12 1/13 Hanjin Heavy I&C Analyst such Certification The research analysts who prepared this report (the „Analysts†°) are registered with the Korea Financial Investment Association and are subject to Korean marketable securities regulations. They are neither registered as research analysts in any other jurisdiction nor subject to the laws and regulations thereof.Except as otherwise specified herein, the Analysts have logical not received any compensation or any other benefits from the subject companies in the past 12 months and have not been promised the same in direct connection with this report.No part of the compensation of the Analysts was, is, or will be directly or indirectly related to the specific recommendations or views contained in this report but, like all employees of Daewoo Securities, the Analysts receive compensation that is impacted by overall firm profitability, which includes public revenues from, among other business units, the instituti onal equities, investment banking, proprietary trading and private client division. At the time of publication of try this report, the Analysts do not know or have reason to know of any actual, material conflict of interest of the Analyst or korean Daewoo Securities Co. , Ltd.Information and pinions contained herein have been compiled from sources believed to be reliable and in good faith, but such information old has not been independently verified and Daewoo makes no guarantee, representation or warranty, express or implied, as to the fairness, accuracy, greater completeness or correctness of the information and opinions contained herein or of any translation into English from the Korean language. If this report is an English french translation of a report prepared in the Korean language, the original Korean language report may have been made available to investors in advance of this report. Daewoo, its affiliates and their directors, officers, employees and agents do not accept a ny liability for any loss arising letter from the use hereof. This report is for general information purposes only and it is not and should not be construed as an such offer or a solicitation of an offer to effect transactions in any securities or other financial instruments.

The price and value of the investments referred to in this report and the income from them may go down as well as up, and institutional investors may realize losses on any investments. Past performance is not a guide to future performance. Future returns are not guaranteed, and a great loss of original capital may occur. Daewoo Securities Research 16 January 17, 2013 Shipbuilding Distribution United Kingdom: This report is being distributed by Daewoo Securities (Europe) Ltd.S. by Daewoo Securities (America) Inc. , a member of FINRA/SIPC, and is only intended for major institutional investors as defined in Rule 15a-6(b)(4) under the U. S.Any U. S. recipient of this document wishing to effect a transaction in any securities discussed herein should contact and same place orders with Daewoo Securities (America) Inc. , which accepts responsibility for the contents of this report in the U.S. or to U. S. ersons absent registration or an applicable exemption from the registration requi rements.