Saturday, August 31, 2019
Powder metallurgy is the process of blending fine powdered materials, pressing them into a desired shape or form (compacting), and then heating the compressed material in a controlled atmosphere to bond the material (sintering). The powder metallurgy process generally consists of four basic steps: (1) powder manufacture, (2) powder blending,(3) compacting, (4) sintering. Compacting is generally performed at room temperature, and the elevated-temperature process of sintering is usually conducted at atmospheric pressure. Optional secondary processing often follows to obtain special properties or enhanced precision. 1] Two main techniques used to form and consolidate the powder are sintering and metal injection molding. Recent developments have made it possible to use rapid manufacturing techniques which use the metal powder for the products. Because with this technique the powder is melted and not sintered, better mechanical strength can be accomplished. History and capabilities The hi story of powder metallurgy (PM) and the art of metals and ceramics sintering are intimately related to each other. Sintering involves the production of a hard solid metal or ceramic piece from a starting powder. While a crude form of iron powder metallurgy existed in Egypt as early as 3000 B. C, and the ancient Incas made jewelry and other artifacts from precious metal powders, mass manufacturing of P/M products did not begin until the mid-or late- 19th centuryÃ¢â¬ .  In these early manufacturing operations, iron was extracted by hand from metal sponge following reduction and was then reintroduced as a powder for final melting or sintering. A much wider range of products can be obtained from powder processes than from direct alloying of fused materials.In melting operations the Ã¢â¬Å"phase ruleÃ¢â¬ applies to all pure and combined elements and strictly dictates the distribution of liquid and solid phases which can exist for specific compositions. In addition, whole body mel ting of starting materials is required for alloying, thus imposing unwelcome chemical, thermal, and containment constraints on manufacturing. Unfortunately, the handling of aluminium/iron powders poses major problems.  Other substances that are especially reactive with atmospheric oxygen, such as tin, are sinterable in special atmospheres or with temporary coatings. 4] In powder metallurgy or ceramics it is possible to fabricate components which otherwise would decompose or disintegrate. All considerations of solid-liquid phase changes can be ignored, so powder processes are more flexible than casting, extrusion, or forging techniques. Controllable characteristics of products prepared using various powder technologies include mechanical, magnetic, and other unconventional properties of such materials as porous solids, aggregates, and intermetallic compounds. Competitive characteristics of manufacturing processing (e. g. , tool wear, complexity, or vendor options) also may be c losely regulated.Powder Metallurgy products are today used in a wide range of industries, from automotive and aerospace applications to power tools and household appliances. Each year the international PM awards highlight the developing capabilities of the technology.  Isostatic powder compacting Isostatic powder compacting is a mass-conserving shaping process. Fine metal particles are placed into a flexible mould and then high gas or fluid pressure is applied to the mould. The resulting article is then sintered in a furnace. This increases the strength of the part by bonding the metal particles.This manufacturing process produces very little scrap metal and can be used to make many different shapes. The tolerances that this process can achieve are very precise, ranging from +/- 0. 008Ã inches (0. 2Ã mm) for axial dimensions and +/- 0. 020Ã inches (0. 5Ã mm) for radial dimensions. This is the most efficient type of powder compacting. (The following subcategories are also from this reference. ) This operation is generally applicable on small production quantities, as it is more costly to run due to its slow operating speed and the need for expendable tooling. oda Compacting pressures range from 15,000Ã psi (100,000 kPa) to 40,000Ã psi (280,000 kPa) for most metals and approximately 2,000Ã psi (14,000Ã kPa) to 10,000Ã psi (69,000 kPa) for non-metals. The density of isostatic compacted parts is 5% to 10% higher than with other powder metallurgy processes. Equipment There are many types of equipment used in Powder Compacting. There is the mold, which is flexible, a pressure mold that the mold is in, and the machine delivering the pressure. There are also controlling devices to control the amount of pressure and how long the pressure is held for.The machines need to apply anywhere from 15,000 psi to 40,000 psi for metals. Geometrical Possibilities Typical workpiece sizes range from 0. 25Ã in (6. 35Ã mm) to 0. 75Ã in (19. 05Ã mm) t hick and 0. 5Ã in (12. 70Ã mm) to 10Ã in (254Ã mm) long. It is possible to compact workpieces that are between 0. 0625Ã in (1. 59Ã mm) and 5Ã in (127Ã mm) thick and 0. 0625Ã in (1. 59Ã mm) to 40Ã in (1,016Ã mm) long. Tool style Isostatic tools are available in three styles, free mold (wet-bag), coarse mold(damp-bag), and fixed mold (dry-bag). The free mold style is the traditional style of isostatic compaction and is not generally used for high production work.In free mold tooling the mold is removed and filled outside the canister. Damp bag is where the mold is located in the canister, yet filled outside. In fixed mold tooling, the mold is contained within the canister, which facilitates automation of the process. Hot isostatic pressing Hot isostatic pressing (HIP) compresses and sinters the part simultaneously by applying heat ranging from 900Ã °F (480Ã °C) to 2250Ã °F (1230Ã °C). Argon gas is the most common gas used in HIP because it is an inert gas, thus prevents chemical reactions during the operation. Cold isostatic pressingCold isostatic pressing (CIP) uses fluid as a means of applying pressure to the mold at room temperature. After removal the part still needs to be sintered. Design Considerations Advantages over standard powder compaction are the possibility of thinner walls and larger workpieces. Height to diameter ratio has no limitation. No specific limitations exist in wall thickness variations, undercuts, reliefs, threads, and cross holes. No lubricants are need for isostatic powder compaction. The minimum wall thickness is 0. 05Ã inches (1. 27Ã mm) and the product can have a weight between 40 and 300 pounds (18 and 136Ã kg).There is 25 to 45% shrinkage of the powder after compacting. Powder production techniques Any fusible material can be atomized. Several techniques have been developed which permit large production rates of powdered particles, often with considerable control over the size ranges of the final grain population. Powders may be prepared by comminution, grinding, chemical reactions, or electrolytic deposition. Powders of the elements titanium, vanadium, thorium, niobium, tantalum, calcium, and uranium have been produced by high-temperature reduction of the corresponding nitrides and carbides.Iron, nickel, uranium, and beryllium submicrometre powders are obtained by reducing metallic oxalates and formates. Exceedingly fine particles also have been prepared by directing a stream of molten metal through a high-temperature plasma jet or flame, simultaneously atomizing and comminuting the material. On Earth various chemical- and flame-associated powdering processes are adopted in part to prevent serious degradation of particle surfaces by atmospheric oxygen. Atomization Atomization is accomplished by forcing a molten metal stream through an orifice at moderate pressures.A gas is introduced into the metal stream just before it leaves the nozzle, serving to create turbulence as the entrained gas expands (due to heating) and exits into a large collection volume exterior to the orifice. The collection volume is filled with gas to promote further turbulence of the molten metal jet. On Earth, air and powder streams are segregated using gravity or cyclonic separation. Most atomised powders are annealed, which helps reduce the oxide and carbon content. The water atomized particles are smaller, cleaner, and nonporous and have a greater breadth of size, which allows better compacting.Simple atomization techniques are available in which liquid metal is forced through an orifice at a sufficiently high velocity to ensure turbulent flow. The usual performance index used is the Reynolds number R = fvd/n, where f = fluid density, v = velocity of the exit stream, d = diameter of the opening, and n = absolute viscosity. At low R the liquid jet oscillates, but at higher velocities the stream becomes turbulent and breaks into droplets. Pumping energy is applied to droplet form ation with very low efficiency (on the order of 1%) and control over the size distribution of the metal particles produced is rather poor.Other techniques such as nozzle vibration, nozzle asymmetry, multiple impinging streams, or molten-metal injection into ambient gas are all available to increase atomization efficiency, produce finer grains, and to narrow the particle size distribution. Unfortunately, it is difficult to eject metals through orifices smaller than a few millimeters in diameter, which in practice limits the minimum size of powder grains to approximately 10 ? m. Atomization also produces a wide spectrum of particle sizes, necessitating downstream classification by screening and remelting a significant fraction of the grain boundary.Centrifugal disintegration Centrifugal disintegration of molten particles offers one way around these problems. Extensive experience is available with iron, steel, and aluminium. Metal to be powdered is formed into a rod which is introduced into a chamber through a rapidly rotating spindle. Opposite the spindle tip is an electrode from which an arc is established which heats the metal rod. As the tip material fuses, the rapid rod rotation throws off tiny melt droplets which solidify before hitting the chamber walls.A circulating gas sweeps particles from the chamber. Similar techniques could be employed in space or on the Moon. The chamber wall could be rotated to force new powders into remote collection vessels, and the electrode could be replaced by a solar mirror focused at the end of the rod. An alternative approach capable of producing a very narrow distribution of grain sizes but with low throughput consists of a rapidly spinning bowl heated to well above the melting point of the material to be powdered.Liquid metal, introduced onto the surface of the basin near the center at flow rates adjusted to permit a thin metal film to skim evenly up the walls and over the edge, breaks into droplets, each approximately the thickness of the film.  Other techniques Another powder-production technique involves a thin jet of liquid metal intersected by high-speed streams of atomized water which break the jet into drops and cool the powder before it reaches the bottom of the bin. In subsequent operations the powder is dried. This is called water atomisation.The advantage is that metal solidifies faster than by gas atomization since the heat capacity of water is some magnitudes higher, mainly a result of higher density. Since the solidification rate is inversely proportional to the particle size smaller particles can be made using water atomisation. The smaller the particles, the more homogeneous the micro structure will be. Notice that particles will have a more irregular shape and the particle size distribution will be wider. In addition, some surface contamination can occur by oxidation skin formation. Powder can be reduced by some kind of pre-consolidation treatment as annealing. sed for cerami c tool Powder compaction [pic] [pic] Rhodium metal: powder, pressed pellet (3*105 psi), remelted Powder compaction is the process of compacting metal powder in a die through the application of high pressures. Typically the tools are held in the vertical orientation with the punch tool forming the bottom of the cavity. The powder is then compacted into a shape and then ejected from the die cavity.  In a number of these applications the parts may require very little additional work for their intended use; making for very cost efficient manufacturing.The density of the compacted powder is directly proportional to the amount of pressure applied. Typical pressures range from 80 psi to 1000 psi, pressures from 1000 psi to 1,000,000 psi have been obtained. Pressure of 10 tons/in? to 50 tons/in? are commonly used for metal powder compaction. To attain the same compression ratio across a component with more than one level or height, it is necessary to work with multiple lower punches. A c ylindrical workpiece is made by single-level tooling. A more complex shape can be made by the common multiple-level tooling. Production rates of 15 to 30 parts per minutes are common.There are four major classes of tool styles: single-action compaction, used for thin, flat components; opposed double-action with two punch motions, which accommodates thicker components; double-action with floating die; and double action withdrawal die. Double action classes give much better density distribution than single action. Tooling must be designed so that it will withstand the extreme pressure without deforming or bending. Tools must be made from materials that are polished and wear-resistant. Better workpiece materials can be obtained by repressing and re-sintering. Here is a table of some of the obtainable properties. Introduction | |[pic] | | | |Powder metallurgy uses sintering process for making various parts out of metal powder. The metal powder is compacted by placing in a closed| |meta l cavity (the die) under pressure. This compacted material is placed in an oven and sintered in a controlled atmosphere at high | |temperatures and the metal powders coalesce and form a solid.A second pressing operation, repressing, can be done prior to sintering to | |improve the compaction and the material properties. | |[pic] | |The properties of this solid are similar to cast or wrought materials of similar composition. Porosity can be adjusted by the amount of | |compaction. Usually single pressed products have high tensile strength but low elongation. These properties can be improved by repressing | |as in the following table. |Material | |Tensile | |MPa | |(psi) | |Tensile | |as Percent of Wrought Iron Tensile | |Elongation | |in 50 mm Ã | |(2 in) | |Elongation | |as Percent of Wrought Iron Elongation | | | |Wrought Iron, Hot Rolled | |331 | |(48,000) |100 % | |30 % | |100 % | | | |Powder Metal, 84 % density | |214 | |(31,000) | |65 % | |2 % | |6% | | | |Powder Metal, repressed, 95 % density | |283 | |(41,000) | |85 % | |25 % | |83 % | | | |Powder metallurgy is useful in making parts that have irregular curves, or recesses that are hard to machine. It is suitable for high | |volume production with very little wastage of material. Secondary machining is virtually eliminated. |Typical parts that can be made with this process include cams, ratchets, sprockets, pawls, sintered bronze and iron bearings (impregnated | |with oil) and carbide tool tips. | | | |Design Considerations | |[pic] | | | |Ã¢â¬ ¢ | |Part must be so designed to allow for easy ejection from the die. Sidewalls should be perpendicular; hole axes should be parallel to the | |direction of opening and closing of the die. | | |Ã¢â¬ ¢ | |Holes, even complicated profiles, are permissible in the direction of compressing. The minimum hole diameter is 1. 5 mm (0. 060 in). | | | |Ã¢â¬ ¢ | |The wall thickness should be compatible with the process typically 1. 5 mm (0. 060 in ) minimum. Length to thickness ratio can be upto 18 | |maximum-this is to ensure that tooling is robust.However, wall thicknesses do not have to be uniform, unlike other processes, which offers| |the designer a great amount of flexibility in designing the parts. | | | |Ã¢â¬ ¢ | |Undercuts are not acceptable, so designs have to be modified to work around this limitation. Threads for screws cannot be made and have to | |be machined later. | | | |Ã¢â¬ ¢ | |Drafts are usually not desirable except for recesses formed by a punch making a blind hole.In such a case a 2-degree draft is recommended. | |Note that the requirement of no draft is more relaxed compared to other forming processes such as casting, molding etc. | | | |Ã¢â¬ ¢ | |Tolerances are 0. 3 % on dimensions. If repressing is done, the tolerances can be as good as 0. 1 %. Repressing, however, increases the cost | |of the product. | | | Powder Metallurgy Ã¢â¬â Processing | | | |Topics Covered | |Materials | | |Powde r Consolidation | | |Cold Uniaxial Pressing | | |Cold Isostatic Pressing | | |Sintering | | |Hot Isostatic Pressing | | |Hot Forging (Powder Forging) | | |Metal Injection Moulding (MIM) | | |Materials | |The majority of the structural components produced by fixed die pressing are iron based.The powders are elemental, pre-alloyed, or partially | |alloyed. Elemental powders, such as iron and copper, are easy to compress to relatively high densities, produce pressed compacts with adequate| |strength for handling during sintering, but do not produce very high strength sintered parts. | |Pre-alloyed powders are harder, less compressible and hence require higher pressing loads to produce high density compacts. However, they are | |capable of producing high strength sintered materials. Pre-alloying is also used when the production of a homogeneous material from elemental | |powders requires very high temperatures and long sintering times.The best examples are the stainless steels, who se chromium and nickel | |contents have to be pre-alloyed to allow economic production by powder metallurgy. | |Partially alloyed powders are a compromise approach. Elemental powders, e. g. Iron with 2 wt. % Copper, are mixed to produce an homogeneous | |blend which is then partially sintered to attach the copper particles to the iron particles without producing a fully diffused powder but | |retaining the powder form. In this way the compressibilities of the separate powders in the blend are maintained and the blend will not | |segregate during transportation and use. | |A similar technique is to Ã¢â¬ËglueÃ¢â¬â¢ the small percentage of alloying element onto the iron powder.This Ã¢â¬ËglueingÃ¢â¬â¢ technique is successfully used | |to introduce carbon into the blends, a technique which prevents carbon segregation and dusting, producing so-called Ã¢â¬ËcleanÃ¢â¬â¢ powders. | |Powder Consolidation | |Components or articles are produced by forming a mass of powder into a shap e, then consolidating to form inter-particle metallurgical bonds. | |An elevated temperature diffusion process referred to as sintering, sometimes assisted by external pressure, accomplishes this. The material | |is never fully molten, although there might be a small volume fraction of liquid present during the sintering process. Sintering can be | |regarded as welding the particles present in the initial useful shape. |As a general rule both mechanical and physical properties improve with increasing density. Therefore the method selected for the fabrication | |of a component by powder metallurgy will depend on the level of performance required from the part. Many components are adequate when produced| |at 85-90% of theoretical full density (T. D. ) whilst others require full density for satisfactory performance. | |Some components, in particular bush type bearings often made from copper and its alloys, are produced with significant and controlled levels | |of porosity, the porosity being subsequently filled with a lubricant. | |Fortunately there is a wide choice of consolidation techniques available. |Cold Uniaxial Pressing | |Elemental metal, or an atomised prealloyed, powder is mixed with a lubricant, typically lithium stearate (0. 75 wt. %), and pressed at pressures| |of say, 600 MPa (87,000 lb/in2) in metal dies. Cold compaction ensures that the as-compacted, or Ã¢â¬ËgreenÃ¢â¬â¢, component is dimensionally very | |accurate, as it is moulded precisely to the size and shape of the die. | |Irregularly shaped particles are required to ensure that the as-pressed component has a high green strength from the interlocking and plastic | |deformation of individual particles with their neighbours. |One disadvantage of this technique is the differences in pressed density that can occur in different parts of the component due to | |particle/particle and die wall/particle frictional effects. Typical as-pressed densities for soft iron components would be 7. 0 g/cc, i. e. | |about 90% of theoretical density. Compaction pressure rises significantly if higher as-pressed densities are required, and this practice | |becomes uneconomic due to higher costs for the larger presses and stronger tools to withstand the higher pressures. | |Cold Isostatic Pressing | |Metal powders are contained in an enclosure e. g. a rubber membrane or a metallic can that is subjected to isostatic, that is uniform in all | |directions, external pressure.As the pressure is isostatic the as-pressed component is of uniform density. Irregularly shaped powder | |particles must be used to provide adequate green strength in the as-pressed component. This will then be sintered in a suitable atmosphere to | |yield the required product. | |Normally this technique is only used for semi-fabricated products such as bars, billets, sheet, and roughly shaped components, all of which | |require considerable secondary operations to produce the final, accurately dimensioned component. Agai n, at economical working pressures, | |products are not fully dense and usually need additional working such as hot extrusion, hot rolling or forging to fully density the material. |Sintering | |Sintering is the process whereby powder compacts are heated so that adjacent particles fuse together, thus resulting in a solid article with | |improved mechanical strength compared to the powder compact. This Ã¢â¬Å"fusingÃ¢â¬ of particles results in an increase in the density of the part and | |hence the process is sometimes called densification. There are some processes such as hot isostatic pressing which combine the compaction and | |sintering processes into a single step. | |After compaction the components pass through a sintering furnace. This typically has two heating zones, the first removes the lubricant, and | |the second higher temperature zone allows diffusion and bonding between powder particles. A range of atmospheres, including vacuum, are used | |to sinter different mate rials depending on their chemical compositions.As an example, precise atmosphere control allows iron/carbon materials| |to be produced with specific carbon compositions and mechanical properties. | |The density of the component can also change during sintering, depending on the materials and the sintering temperature. These dimensional | |changes can be controlled by an understanding and control of the pressing and sintering parameters, and components can be produced with | |dimensions that need little or no rectification to meet the dimensional tolerances. Note that in many cases all of the powder used is present | |in the finished product, scrap losses will only occur when secondary machining operations are necessary. |Hot Isostatic Pressing | |Powders are usually encapsulated in a metallic container but sometimes in glass. The container is evacuated, the powder out-gassed to avoid | |contamination of the materials by any residual gas during the consolidation stage and sealed-off. It is then heated and subjected to isostatic| |pressure sufficient to plastically deform both the container and the powder. | |The rate of densification of the powder depends upon the yield strength of the powder at the temperatures and pressures chosen. At moderate | |temperature the yield strength of the powder can still be high and require high pressure to produce densification in an economic time.Typical| |values might be 1120Ã °C and 100 MPa for ferrous alloys. By pressing at very much higher temperatures lower pressures are required as the yield | |strength of the material is lower. Using a glass enclosure atmospheric pressure (15 psi) is used to consolidate bars and larger billets. | |The technique requires considerable financial investment as the pressure vessel has to withstand the internal gas pressure and allow the | |powder to be heated to high temperatures. | |As with cold isostatic pressing only semifinished products are produced, either for subsequent working to sma ller sizes, or for machining to | |finished dimensions. |Hot Forging (Powder Forging) | |Cold pressed and sintered components have the great advantage of being close to final shape (near-nett shape), but are not fully dense. Where | |densification is essential to provide adequate mechanical properties, the technique of hot forging, or powder forging, can be used. | |In powder forging an as-pressed component is usually heated to a forging temperature significantly below the usual sintering temperature of | |the material and then forged in a closed die. This produces a fully dense component with the shape of the forging die and appropriate | |mechanical properties. |Powder forged parts generally are not as close to final size or shape as cold pressed and sintered parts. This results from the allowances | |made for thermal expansion effects and the need for draft angles on the forging tools. Further, minimal, machining is required but when all | |things are considered this route is of ten very cost effective. | |Metal Injection Moulding (MIM) | |Injection moulding is very widely used to produce precisely shaped plastic components in complex dies. As injection pressures are low it is | |possible to manufacture complex components, even some with internal screw threads, by the use of side cores and split tools. |By mixing fine, typically less than 20 ? m diameter, spherical metal powders with thermoplastic binders, metal filled plastic components can be| |produced with many of the features available in injection moulded plastics. After injection moulding, the plastic binder material is removed | |to leave a metal skeleton which is then sintered at high temperature. | |Dimensional control can be exercised on the as-sintered component as the injected density is sensibly uniform so shrinkage on sintering is | |also uniform. | |Shrinkage can be large, due to both the fine particle size of the powders and the substantial proportion of polymer binder used. |
Posted by Unknown at 9:49 AM
Friday, August 30, 2019
What Does it Mean to be a Man or a Woman? A theme the tragedy of Macbeth routinely reveals is one of gender roles. Throughout the play, many characters struggle with conflict within themselves; not unlike conflicts that we face inside ourselves today. Various major conflicts throughout the screenplay are somehow connected with charactersÃ¢â¬â¢ roles as men or women. The dominant question is, do the characters know who they are as men and women? Although MacbethÃ¢â¬â¢s age was never stated, it is concluded from his naivety and emotional immaturity throughout the play that he might not be much older than a current college student.Young adulthood sometimes contains an internal struggle to find oneself, not only working to discover who they are as a person, but they are as a man or a woman. As demonstrated many times throughout the script, Macbeth is internally fighting with his masculine instincts. For example, in Act I, the captain, Duncan, and Malcolm discuss MacbethÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â ¬Å"heroicÃ¢â¬ and violent tendencies (Macbeth I. 2. 15-22). From childhood, men thrive to be a hero. Sometimes, in their minds, that means being rashly violent as well.So when these men mention MacbethÃ¢â¬â¢s unnecessarily brutal strategies, it makes one see the battle Macbeth must be struggling with to gain the role of Ã¢â¬Å"heroÃ¢â¬ in othersÃ¢â¬â¢ eyes. The witches also play a part in MacbethÃ¢â¬â¢s battle of identification with himself. The bearded women plant the seed of ambition in Macbeth. Macbeth realizes that he is lusting after the throne and the power that comes with it. But, at first, he does not know how to deal with it. (Ã¢â¬Å"If good, why do I yield to that suggestion Whose horrid image doth unfix my hair And make my seated heart knock at my ribs,Against the use of nature? Present fears Are less than horrible imaginings. My thought, whose murder yet is but fantastical, Shakes so my single state of man That function is smothered in surmise, And nothing is but what is not. Ã¢â¬ ) (I. 3. 135-143). It is normal for men to want to be ambitious. God created men as a ruler, as stated in Genesis: Ã¢â¬Å"Then God said, Ã¢â¬Å"Let us make man in our image, in our likeness, and let them rule over the fish of the sea and the birds of the air, over the livestock, over all the earth, and over all the creatures that move along the groundÃ¢â¬ (NLT Genesis 1:26).Therefore, men have ambitious souls. God did not intend to have sovereigns or rulers of people, but men and women ruined that when Adam and Eve betrayed the Lord. Macbeth is not in tune with himself and how his emotions and ambitions will affect other people. This is one of MacbethÃ¢â¬â¢s atrophies and causes him to lust for increasingly more power. Lord Acton once said, Ã¢â¬Å"Power corrupts. Absolute power corrupts absolutely. Ã¢â¬ Men also need womenÃ¢â¬â¢s acceptance to accept themselves.They want women to see their masculinity and power Ã¢â¬â hence the reason they like t o display their muscles and talk about their accomplishments. However, when a women does not show that they appreciate the manhood, it puts the man down. Think about the way males react when called a coward, especially if it is a woman. They puffs out their chests, try to seem larger than they actually are, and object. In Act I, Scene 7 Lady Macbeth calls Macbeth a coward, and he begs her to stop. (Ã¢â¬Å"Art thou afeard To be the same in thine own act and valorAs thou art in desire? Wouldst thou have that Which thou esteemÃ¢â¬â¢st the ornament of life, And live a coward in thine own esteem, Letting Ã¢â¬ËI dare notÃ¢â¬â¢ wait upon Ã¢â¬ËI would,Ã¢â¬â¢Ã¢â¬ ) (I. 7. 39-45). Then, she insults his manhood; the ultimate way to manipulate the male gender. Macbeth sees that the only way to impress his wife, is by killing the king and following his own ambitious instincts. The way Lady Macbeth spoke these words to Macbeth, there was no way in his mind that he could object Ã¢â¬â it would ruin his masculinity.From there, Macbeth will not stop until he reaches absolute power. He even uses his wifeÃ¢â¬â¢s tactics and questions the murdersÃ¢â¬â¢ manhoods when manipulating them to kill Banquo. (Ã¢â¬Å"Do you find Your patience so predominant in your nature That you can let this go? Are you so gospeled To pray for this good man and for his issue, Whose heavy hand hath bowed you to the grave And beggared yours forever? Ã¢â¬ ) (III. 1. 87-93). The gender roles quickly became a large part of the plot to get people to complete tasks for othersÃ¢â¬â¢ benefits.Characters constantly bring up manhood and relate it to their rise or lack of a rise (Lady Macbeth- Ã¢â¬Å"unsex meÃ¢â¬ ) to power (I. 5. 41). However, power wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t meant for man; it was meant for God. This power became an idol Ã¢â¬â the characters put it between them and God. That was the charactersÃ¢â¬â¢ downfalls. Instead of being a Ã¢â¬Å"manly man,Ã¢â¬ they should have tried to be a man of God as in 1 Timothy 6:19, Ã¢â¬Å"so they may experience true lifeÃ¢â¬ (NLT). One does not realize their true self, until they realize they are a man or woman of God.
Posted by Unknown at 12:12 PM
Thursday, August 29, 2019
Lego is one of the most reputed organizations known for having amused and nurtured the building as well as the motor skills of children all over the world. LegoÃ¢â¬â¢s reputation lies especially in the fact that it appeals to the children, and parents alike. While the children are attracted by the fact that the toys produced by Lego let them build their own creations, the parents are simply attracted by the educational purpose these toys serve (Moreau & Engeset, 2016) .However, the growth of the organization has never been free from challenges, and in order to sustain itself in future, Lego must be able to evaluate the variety of strategic choices available to the company. Before developing the effective strategies necessary for Lego, a SWOT analysis will help in understanding the situation in a better way: It is not just a toy factory, but it serves to educate the children as well. Its educative value has a great appeal to the consumers. It has earned huge brand recognition across fifty five countries. The market is diversified, as it consists of video games, movies and merchandise. Good advertisement and promotional strategies. Huge competition from rival organizatons. The growing popularity of online games among the children. Further product diversification for different age groups is beneficial. Lego can extend its production to other parts of the world, which are experienced in the manufacture of toys. There is a huge lack of innovation. The organization can face huge competition from other low-cost toy products, as well as the new electronic products (Biancamaria et al., 2014). Although Lego has gained unprecedented popularity among the children, the organization has recently failed to retain its high position in the consumer market, and this would not have happened if the organization could keep on innovating itself with time. Definitely, the Lego brand has been introducing a variety of products, such as video games, jewelry sets as well as amusement parks, however, what went wrong was that it failed to keep its focus on the products, and needless to say it was taking haphazard business decisions.Ã The discipline in the management system was totally missing. There are organizations such as Mega Blocs, which though are imitating the products of Lego, are offering the products at too cheap a price. Hence, these organizations, which are imitating the products of Lego, are using cheaper materials and yet attracting consumers (Koh et al., 2012). Besides, with the emergence of video games and the variety of free online games, children are losing interest in t he toys offered by Lego. Another emerging issue with Lego has been the organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s focus on a narrow target audience, as a result of which it is unable to gain the attention of a huge number of consumers. The organization has also been encountering a stiff competition from China, as the nation is much popular for its toy markets, which are also operating globally, and apart from the theme-based toys or traditional toys, educational toys are also popularly found in the market (Hawking, 2013). Ã Robertson claimed that an organization, before introducing innovation must possess sufficient knowledge about what would be the direction of the innovation. Controlled innovation is highly important for an organization, and here in case of Lego, it can be seen that though it tried to introduce disruptive ideas in business, it failed to overlook the commercial gains for the sake of too much focus on creative ideas (Drucker, 2014). Ã While the Lego group thought that it was enhancing its revenue through market diversification, the over diversification of the products made their business highly irrelevant and directionless (Power et al., 2016). Certain toy-manufacturing organizations are using the competitive pricing policy for selling their products, and hence the parents irrespective of the brand recognition, are getting attracted to their products, since they are reluctant to invest too much for a toy. The main target customers of Lego has been the children aged between 3 to 12 yea rs, and though the organization has gradually diversified its products for manufacturing toys for toddlers and teens, it did not manufacture anything attractive that could gain the attention of the adults (McGraw et al., 2013). To make the business more sustainable in future, Lego must adopt innovative business ideas that will help in pushing the business forward. The organization must focus on a few products, very much relevant and meaningful in the toy- manufacturing business, instead of the theme parks and the apparels. The organization needs to shut down its theme parks, as it is very much capital intensive, and is hardly offering any lucrative returns to the owners. The organization has been tapping a huge number of franchises; however, before doing the same, the organization must have a strategic and well-integrated approach. Lego is losing market to the virtual games and other rival organizations and hence it is important to stick to the Lego movie concept. Further, the organization must adopt very effective promotional strategies, and the organization must keep on interacting with the consumers via social media platforms. Knowing the target market, broadening the market, and instead of diversifying too much, producing limited products for a wide range of consumers, is always a highly beneficial idea. The organization must come up with compelling online game ideas that can attract the consumers irrespective of age and sex. In addition, it should also introduce a few interesting, participatory games in the Ã¢â¬Å"family funÃ¢â¬ category. The organization instead of setting up stores in China, should tie up with a popular Chinese toy-manufacturing organization. In order to bring consumer interest in the toys produced by Lego, it can not only take use of social media marketing strategy, but also can arrange competitions in schools, launching new or re-introducing existent products (Anh, 2014). As and when the organization will stop its aggressive expansion, it will be able to focus much better on limited products, both in terms of production as well as promotion. Online gaming is achieving enormous popularity among the children of the present generation, and hence creating great graphics introducing fun and interesting games via online sites, can help in boosting the recognition of Lego. Strategic alliance with the famous Chinese companies can considerably help Lego in achieving greater recognition in the Chinese market, while also helping it acquire greater expertise necessary for serving the changing needs of the consumers. Anh, V. N. (2014).Ã Analysis factors affecting consumer behavior toward China children toys in Ho Chi Minh CityÃ (Doctoral dissertation, International University HCMC, Vietnam). Biancamaria, S., Lamy, A. and Mognard, N. (2014), May. Analysis of SWOT spatial and temporal samplings over continents. InÃ EGU General Assembly Conference AbstractsÃ (Vol. 16, p. 16904). Drucker, P. (2014).Ã Innovation and entrepreneurship. Routledge. Hawking, S. (2013). Rebuild your childhood with ourLego brick competition.New Scientist,Ã 220(2948), 85. Koh, K.K., Choo, K.W.J. and Chong, K.C. (2012). Lego Challenge for competition project. McGraw, J. J., Wallot, S., Mitkidis, P., & Roepstorff, A. (2014). CultureÃ¢â¬â¢s building blocks: investigating cultural evolution in a LEGO construction task.Frontiers in psychology,Ã 5. Moreau, C. P., & Engeset, M. G. (2016). The Downstream Consequences of Problem-Solving Mindsets: How Playing with LEGO Influences Creativity.Journal of Marketing Research,Ã 53(1), 18-30. Powers, C., Spear, R., Wood, D., & Harish, A. (2016). The Re-designed Lego. Getting academic assistance from
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Wednesday, August 28, 2019
Learning Style - Essay Example Learning styles are unique aspect of a learnerÃ¢â¬â¢s initiative to gain new knowledge and are important as basis for the mode of instruction that should be used. Learning Styles and Kinesthetic Learner Experiences The VARK questionnaire is a multiple choice type of test which provides questions about normal day-to-day activities which aims to identify the test takerÃ¢â¬â¢s learning style. Learning styles are Ã¢â¬Å"biological and developmental set of personal characteristics that make the identical instruction effective for some students and ineffective for othersÃ¢â¬ (Dunn & Dunn, 1993, as cited in Dunn & Griggs, 1998). All answers are to be evaluated which would be the basis of the type of learning style the test taker prefers. There were items in the questionnaires in which I have to check two choices, but most of the time, I choose the answers similar or close to what I usually do. The answers are mostly involving body movements and actual involvement of the activity. In other words, I usually prefer to learn by doing it myself or with the guidance of others. As expected, I came about with the result Ã¢â¬Å"kinesthetic learnerÃ¢â¬ which I think is very true according to my previous learning experiences.
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Tuesday, August 27, 2019
State and Society in 20th century China - Essay Example It was 1975 when Deng took the control of China Ã¢â¬â in just two years after Deng started a plan Ã¢â¬â which lasted for 10 years, i.e. from 1977 up to 1987, and became known as a Ã¢â¬Ëpolitical structural reformÃ¢â¬â¢ (Gittings, 2006, 165); the main target of this scheme has been the extinction of old political ideas Ã¢â¬â referring mostly to those developed during the governance of China by Mao Ã¢â¬â and their replacement with new political principles Ã¢â¬â incorporated within the above scheme. The efforts for ChinaÃ¢â¬â¢s political reform had many opponents; one of them has been Hua Guofeng Ã¢â¬â a successor of Mao, in terms of his political ideas and targets. The resistance of Hua and his supporters towards the political changes promoted by Deng proves the refusal of Chinese politicians to be aligned with the current political trends (Gittings, 2006, 167) and their preference towards the traditional principles of Communism Ã¢â¬â as expressed through Mao Ã¢â¬â¢s political choices. It could be stated that political reform in China was imposed because of the need for an economic reform Ã¢â¬â which could not be achieved unless the political structure and principles in China were changed Ã¢â¬â after making this assumption Deng enforced the development of the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s political structure through a licence granted in 1986 (Gittings, 2006, 197). Certain aspects of the attempted political reform attempted by Deng after 1986 are the following: a) change of the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s political system to capitalism Ã¢â¬â even if communism has been the primary political system its structure has been changed showing similar characteristics with political systems that are based on capitalism (Gittings, 2006, 213), b) development of Ã¢â¬ËpatriotismÃ¢â¬â¢ Ã¢â¬â a concept that was not particular supported during the governance of the country by Mao (Gittings, 2006, 209), c) the increase of the political civilization in China (Git tings, 2006, 13), d) the improvement of the relationship Ã¢â¬Ëbetween intellectuals
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Monday, August 26, 2019
Critical Business Ethics In Global Workplace Human Relations - Coursework Example d develop ethical principles and guidelines for their employees, where ethics involve the standards on what is right and what is wrong conduct (Renz 2010). However, in the global setting it is more complex to decide what is good or what bad conduct is. In actuality, it is a firmÃ¢â¬â¢s social responsibility that comes into debate at this juncture. Over the past decade, there have been numerous ideas presented about the appropriate mode of ethical conduct in global business firms in a global setting. Immense interest in topics such as improper treatment of workers, faulty products that lead to consumer endangerment or inconvenience damage to the environment, as well as ethical conduct issues among countries, organizations, and individuals. However, the heightened sensitivity in the matter and the increasing global competition has created quite the difficult management situation for firms all over the globe. On the other hand, globally active firms, now more than ever, must devise strategies that will ensure their organizationsÃ¢â¬â¢ are not in the crossfire arising from the increasing focus on ethical conduct. Additionally, firms must develop strategies that carry out additional costs arising as a result of implementation of global ethical standards. The purpose of this paper is to discuss in detail the ethical behavior of firms, especially those that are active globally. The paper unfolds as three sections: First, introduction to the matter in hand. Later, a discussion of the various ethical frameworks in relation to the Credit Suisse case. In the third and final section, a conclusion and personal comments regarding the matters discussed. Ethics can be defined simply as the guiding principles that assist us determine what is right and what is wrong. These guiding principles are the parameters by which the business organizations operate. Ethical behavior implies that individuals behave in the manner acceptable by the organization and society as a whole (Bopp & Smith
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Planning on research on Inclusive Education - Essay Example Inclusive education can include a number of strategies. Most of the research on this topic focuses on; global movements, laws on inclusive education within and without a given country, resources, deconstruction of special schools, sources of funding for inclusive schools and other ideas that may boost the development of Inclusive education. There are various global movements that have worked towards the inclusion of the pupils with special educational needs. Schooling of these pupils with special educational needs has changed from neglect previously to integration presently. Global movement is taking part in the African countries, the Asian countries the European countries and also in the South American countries. In the United Kingdom there is a very strong policy framework which is based on the inclusive principles and values together with additional funding. Similarly the movements have allowed the pupils with the special educational disabilities to understand their needs well and this has enabled them learn to live in a world that is full of differences. This movement has a global dimension whereby there is a connection between the various countries globally and this has spurred a commitment by various countries to set their national targets for the pupils with special educational needs. (Norwich, 1994) Special schools have been in place since the days of old. ... In the year 2001, there were close to sixty one percent of children with special needs that were placed in mainstream schools this was an increase of five percent from the mid nineties. Besides, there was a seven percent decrease of special schools in the UK. Staff working in these special schools also reduced by close to eleven percent in that same year. However, more still needs to be done as there is still a large portion of the education system that has not included children with special needs in their program. Laws have also been regulated towards the realization of this agenda. In the UK, there have been a number of laws that have been passed that worked towards implementation of inclusive education. There were acts that were passed in the year 1986, 1993 and 1996. All these acts placed emphasis on the fact that children with special needs should be given the right to attend mainstream schools if their parents allow it and if there is a provision for them in that institution. In the year 1998 and 1997, the Government made publications specifically relating to children with special needs. Here, they addressed plans that would assist in this inclusion program. There were a number of newsletters written by the government concerning inclusive education at that same time. Later on, a special education needs and disability act was passed that reinforced special children's entitlement to mainstream schooling. An exception was provided if the child would cause very serious impairment to education in the classroom or if their parents did not allow it. (The Children Act 2004, 2004) It has been found that there is a lack of funding towards this form of
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Sunday, August 25, 2019
How Will You Vote - Essay Example The applicant were right in their petition saying that if we allow even the Gay Alliance for Same Sex Marriage to hold public assemblies, why not the Hampton Roads Jihad. Giving of pamphlets and holding public demonstrations are all preserved in the Ã¢â¬Å"International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (Article 21)Ã¢â¬ which states that: Ã¢â¬Å"The right of peaceful assembly shall be recognized. No restrictions may be placed on the exercise of this right other than those imposed in conformity with the law and which are necessary in a democratic society in the interest of national security or public safety (ordre public), the protection of public health or morals or the protection of the rights and freedom of othersÃ¢â¬ (icnl.org). If Hampton Roads Jihad had passed all the scrutiny, submitted necessary requirements and paid the permit cost of $97,500, then there will be no reason why the permit-issuing body Ã¢â¬âwhich is the City CouncilÃ¢â¬âshould block the permit a pplicant in proceeding with the public assembly. It is the duty of the members of the City Council to scrutinize and to consequently approve permits to hold public assembly of applicants if they laboriously went through the series of procedures and if they meant to do it peaceably on the appointed date and place. If there are pressures by the public for the City Council to prohibit the Hampton Roads Jihad, it is the duty of the state to implement what has been approved and to put in place safeguard measures and contingencies that would avoid acts of violations by groups critical towards the demonstrators. Besides, the Hampton Roads Jihad has many options to contest unfavorable decisions in the higher authorities aside from the local City Council. On the other hand, if the demonstration goes awry, it is the time to disperse the members of Hampton Roads Jihad to further avoid any damages to public property and national security. Indeed, it is righteous not to allow demonstrators who a re past criminals, themselves, to hold public demonstrations. But Hampton Roads Jihad, if they are to be believed, only filed for a permit to public demonstration just to commemorate Osama Bin LadenÃ¢â¬â¢s birthday. Ultimately, there is nothing wrong with that. No reason why we shouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t allow them. To say that since they believe Bin Laden, then they share the acts of Bin Laden is a misconception. The Hampton Roads Jihad has the right to uphold their belief in Osama Bin Laden, and no entity has the right to challenge their sentiment on public discourse except for the sake of and during discussions. This is preserved in the freedom of expression and of the press, and to violate this is tantamount to a great disservice to America. It is all clear in the First Amendment of the Ã¢â¬Å"United States Bill of RightsÃ¢â¬ which declares that: Ã¢â¬Å"Congress shall not make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the f reedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the government for a redress of grievances.Ã¢â¬ (Amendment I, US Bill of Rights) To vote favorably for Hampton Roads Jihad could be a great challenge that would spell the end of my career as member of a local City Council in a US soil which was once the primary target of Osama Bin Laden-led 9/11 attacks. But to prohibit the Hampton Roads Jihad in proceeding with their demonstration is a great disservice
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Saturday, August 24, 2019
Decision Support Paper - Case Study Example sector corporations postulate that organizations are expected to recruit more seasoned and professional managers in the coming decade or so (Schlegelmilch and Thomas, 2011). Therefore, in terms of understanding cross-industry patterns and the changing dynamics of the business environment which have largely been prompted by globalization, business schools are advised to remain competent and reevaluate their perspectives regarding the potentially modified role of the MBA with respect to the new context rather than discarding the graduate degree or considering probable replacements for the same. As noted by Sclegelmilch and Thomas (2011), the demand for MBAs is expected to demonstrate its presence till an expected period of 2020 and possibly beyond this timeframe. Nonetheless, the integration of innovation is required as a part of restoring the contemporary MBA curriculum and model thereby, tailoring the degree to suit the requirements of drastically changing firms across the globe (Datar, Garvin and Cullen, 2011). The Board of Regents is recommended to follow a comprehensive course of action plan to determine the current trends and patterns in cross-industry recruitment drives, potential training firms for graduates and the scope of career development in the post-graduation phase. The research conducted by Hussey (2012) asserts that increasing returns against an MBA degree can be derived by assessing the extent to which gained or accumulated skills are valuable to the market for labor or how these skills can be associated with the gaps in the market for labor. The application of proposed quantitative analysis methodologies to draw objective, valid and representative conclusions is rooted in focusing upon empirical research and identifying separate trends with regard to each significant facet of consideration. Henceforth, this report proposes that the adoption of any suitable recommendation should be approved on the basis of evaluating student enrollment records
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Friday, August 23, 2019
Unethical Status (Ageincy Problem) - Case Study Example Unethical Status (Ageincy Problem) Agency relationship occurs when shareholders (principals) hire another person or persons (agents) to undertake certain duties on behalf of them (principals). Agency theory portrays the firm as a nexus of contracts between the holders of resources. This paper explores the type of conflict in the case, effect on stakeholders, type of costs involved and how to minimize the conflict. Shareholder-Management Conflict: The case involves agency conflict between shareholders and the management. When managers hide some information from shareholders, an agency problem arises. A conflict ensues between shareholders and the managers of the organisation. Managers will most often try to pursue self-interest gains at the expense of shareholders in an imperfect market. According to agency theory, agency problem arises when managers put their self-interest goals before those of shareholders.The asymmetric flow of information in an imperfect market makes it possible for managers to pursue their self-interests rather than that of the organisation (Bhabatosh, 2008). For example, managers are usually in a better opposition to know the ability of the organisation to meet shareholders expectations than the shareholders. Because of uncertainties in the market, managers can always influence the outcome of the performance of the organisation. They can manipulate the results to be posit ive or negative in pursuit of self-interests. The conflict between shareholders arises when managers seek for deals that reduce the profit of the firm. For example, when managers seek for perquisites and pay rise, there may be a conflict between shareholders and the managers because this would most likely reduce the shareholder value. Another example is when managers try to avoid optimal risks contrary to the expectations of shareholders (Bhabatosh, 2008). Effect of the Conflict on Stakeholders When managers avoid certain risky investment opportunities for which shareholders would most likely prefer to venture in because of high gains involved, there is likely to be a clash between the management and shareholders of the company. When outside investors realise that the decision of the company is contradicting their own expectations and, thus not in their best interest, the result is discounting the prices that they can willingly pay for the shares of the company. Agency Costs Unethic al behaviour where managers take make unobserved actions courtesy of the inability of the shareholders to monitor all managerial actions leads to a morality crisis that demands shareholders to incur certain agency costs in order to keep managers on check (Kapil, 2011). Agency costs are those that are borne by shareholders in attempts to motivate managers to act in the best interest of the organisation rather than pursuing their individual interests. There are usually three main agency costs incurred by shareholders. First, shareholders are faced with the cost of monitoring the actions of the management (Kapil, 2011; Jensen & Meckling, 1976). Monitoring cost include audit cost to check on possible unethical behaviour of the management over a given financial period. Second, shareholders will have to incur structuring costs in a bid to establish organisational structure that will diminish the possibility of unethical behaviour among the management of the company (Kapil, 2011). These co sts may include the appointment of independent persons outside the company to the board of directors or reducing organisational hierarchy. Lastly, shareholders also incur the agentsÃ¢â¬â¢
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Thursday, August 22, 2019
Free Will and Responsibility Essay Responsibility is being able to acknowledge and recognize that an outcome happened because of a choice. Responsibility is also accepting accountability for a particular choice. Once a person learns self-control, and can take blame rather than place blame, he or she can become a happy and successful person. Usually, everyone is capable of being responsible for his or her choices. As much as we might often see responsibility as a burden, it is one of the most important character traits in life. In most cases, there is no other person to blame for what your life is beside yourself. One example of being responsible is going to bed earlier so that IÃ¢â¬â¢m rested for school or work. Responsibility involves self-discipline. In order to get to school and work on time, I have to make sure that I go to bed on time. Being irresponsible is easier, less time consuming, and less challenging. Placing blame on others is always the easiest way out of any situation, and it never fixes a problem. When you allow others to be responsible for you, you give away the power to control your life and the freedom to be who you want to be.When I allow myself to stay up late and talk on the phone, I am not fully rested and often late to school. When I am working as a lifeguard in the summer, not being rested can cause me to not perform my duties to the best of my ability. I am less alert, which puts peoples lives in danger. Imagine how great the world would be if everyone would take on one more ounce of responsibility for themselves and for their community. As Eleanor Roosevelt said, Ã¢â¬Å"In the long run, we shape our lives, and we shape ourselves. The process never ends until we die. And the choices we make are ultimately our own responsibility.Ã¢â¬
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Wednesday, August 21, 2019
The most famous psychological studies Essay The most famous psychological studies of children and aggressive behaviour are Albert Banduras Bobo doll studies, performed at Stamford University, which are now widely regarded as early research classics in the field. These were experimental studies in which children of nursery school age observed a video in which an adult was hitting, punching, kicking and throwing a large inflatable doll. Particular actions were used which children would be unlikely to perform spontaneously. The children were then observed, as they played alone in a playroom with the same doll for 10 to 20 minutes. A controlled group of children were allowed to play with the doll without observing the video of the aggressive adult behaviour. As you might expect, the children who witnessed the adult aggression performed similar acts and the others did not. In this study, Bandura has shown that children display acts of aggressive behaviour, acquired simply through observing someone else performing in these acts. There are many flaws in this study however, which can influence or exaggerate the reactions of the children such as the environment in which the study is held. The laboratory is an uncomfortable area in which children may act in a way which is alien to their usual reactions, and they may behave as they feel they are expected to, one child was recorded asking Mummy is that the doll we have to hit? Children are noted to understand and differentiate between fantasy and real life, (it is ok to hit a doll but not a person.) It is also thought that the theorists conducting the study may have intentionally encouraged the aggression, something that most parents would not. So although Bandura did prove that the childrens behaviour was undoubtedly linked to the images they had seen, it was an artificially made environment (both literally and by means of behaviour expressed by all parties) and therefore I would argue that it couldnt possibly reflect a true scenario. Other studies relating to this concept reached the same conclusions until a study by Feshbach and Singer (1971). Understanding that the environment of a laboratory may be a establishing factor in the behaviour of children, Feshbach and Singer decided to conduct their experiment in schools, an environment in which the children would feel comfortable and therefore more inclined to react in a way which is more accurate. Going into a boys home the theorists spilt a class into two groups, and conducted a manipulated situation over a duration of six weeks. The boys were exposed to different types of television, one group were shown typically violent shows, and the other observed generally neutral television. The results proved an opposite reaction to Banduras study; the boys exposed to the violent television remained the same, while the other group had gotten considerably more aggressive during the experiment. This reaction is in line with the CATHARIS theory, which claims that watching violent programmes decreases levels of arousal, leaving viewers less prone to aggressive behaviour. These studies are extremely contradictory and the differences are an example of how it is extremely difficult to define the exact link between television and behavioural effects.
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Tuesday, August 20, 2019
Structure And Functions Of The Skeletal System HUMAN SKELETON is the internal structure that holds the human body up and with the help of the muscular system allows us to move, also works to protect the delicate and vital organs found inside it from being damaged. At birth the human skeleton is made up of 275 different bones and as the body matures some of these bones start to fuse together leaving only 206 bones in an adult human. A skeleton has got five different job roles which are: Blood production. Movement Shape Protection DIAGRAM: BACK FRONT (@Google) There are two major systems of bones in the human body which are Axial Appendicular skeleton. AXIAL SKELETON it is essentially suited for protection. It forms the main axis/core of a human skeletal system. It consists of: Cranium protects the brain. Made up of hard sheets of bones with fixed joints. Sort of a ball shape at the back. It is comprised of eight cranial and fourteen facial bones. The cranial bones make up the protective frame of bone around the brain. The facial bones make up the shape of a human face. DIAGRAM: (@Google) Thorax takes part in both protecting the heart and lungs, and also helps in shape of the body. Made up of a sternum and 12 pairs of ribs. Forms a concave shape. Ribs are flat bones that are close together and make a concave shape that goes around the internal organs that are vital such as heart and lungs. DIAGRAM: fully labeled on next page. (@Google) Vertebral column (spine or backbone) consists of a series of 33 irregularly shaped bones that are called vertebrae. Extends from the base of the cranium to the pelvis, providing a central axis for the body Accounts for around 40% of a human overall weight. The vertebrae of a human spine are held together strongly by powerful ligaments that allow little movement between your adjacent vertebrae but afford a considerable degree flexibility along the spine as a whole. Its main job role is to protect the spinal cord even though it also helps by supporting the ribcage by maintaining the balance between it and the abdominal cavity. The bones of a vertebral column have got cartilage joints. It is divided into parts which are: Cervical vertebrae (seven) these are the vertebrae in the neck. The first two are known as the atlas (C1) and the axis (C2). These two form a pivot joint that allows the head and neck to move freely. It is the smallest and most vulnerable vertebrae of the vertebrae column but it is the most important because it sends signal to the thoracic from the head. Thoracic vertebrae (twelve) these are the vertebrae of the mid spine, which articulate with the ribs and are also found in the thorax. The thoracic vertebrae are larger than the cervical ad increase in size from top to bottom. Lumbar vertebrae (five focused) these are situated at the lower back and are the largest of the movable vertebrae. They are required to support more weight than other vertebrae and provide attachment for many of the muscles of the back. The discs that lie between these vertebrae produce a concave curve in the back. Sacral vertebrae (five) these are fused to form the sacrum. This is a triangular bone located below the lumbar and it forms the back wall of the pelvic griddle sitting between the two hip bones. Coccygeal vertebrae (four focused) this is the last part of the vertebral column which has got four fused bones that form a coccyx or a tail bone. DIAGRAM: (@Google) APPENDICULAR SKELETON it is for movement/leverage, shape, and blood production. It can also sometimes take part in protection Consists of 126 bones makes body movement possible and protects the organs of digestion, excretion, and reproduction. The word appendicular means referring to an appendage or anything attached to a major part of the body, such as the upper and lower extremities. The appendicular skeleton is the part of the skeleton that includes the pectoral girdle, the upper limbs, the pelvic girdle, and the lower limbs. The appendicular skeleton and the axial skeleton together form the complete skeleton Pectoral griddle consists of two shoulder blades (scapulae) and two collar bones (clavicles). These bones articulate with one another, allowing some degree of movement. Shoulder blades (scapulae) is a flat triangular bone which stretches from the shoulder to the vertebral column at the back. On the back side it has a bony ridge for the attachment of the muscles. The bony ridge forms a major projection, the acromion, above the shoulder joint. Beneath the collar bone and just on the inside of the shoulder joint, is another bony projection of the shoulder blade, the coracoid process, which also serves for the attachment of muscles. The upper outer corner of the shoulder blade ends in the glenoid cavity into which fit the head of upper arm bone forming a ball and socket joint. collar bones (clavicle) has got a rod-shaped and forms a roughly S-shape It lies horizontally and articulates with the upper end of the breastbone, right in the middle and front, just above the first rib The lateral end articulates with the acromium. Collar bones serve as a support for the shoulder blades in front and keep the shoulder blades back so that the arms can hang freely at the sides of the body. They prevent the pectoral girdles from getting out of joint easily and sufficient movement of the shoulders. (@Google) Pelvic girdle is composed of two coxal (hip) bones that are located at the base of the spine. It is also known as the hip girdle. It is the bony structures to which the last limbs of a vertebrate are attached to. 1. Ilium is the upper part of the bony pelvic which is also the largest. It has a prominent ridge running along its upper surface called the iliac crest. (@biology) 2. Iliac crest is for the attachment of body wall muscles. 3. Symphysis pubis is the midline cartilaginous joint uniting the left and right pubic bones. Upper limb can be divided into five main regions which are: The Upper Arm (Humerus) is a single bone. The upper end consists of a hemi-spherical ball which fits into the socket of the shoulder blade to form the shoulder joint. The lower end of the humerus forms a shallow ball and socket joint with the radius and a hinge joint with the ulna in the elbow. Forearm (Radius Ulna) the ulna is the larger of two bones situated in the inner side of the forearm. The upper end of the ulna articulates with the lower end of the humerus forming a strong hinge joint in the elbow region. The lower end of the ulna is slender and plays a minor role in the formation of the wrist joint. The radius is situated on the thumb side of the forearm and its upper end articulate with both the humerus and the ulna. The broad, lower end of the radius forms a major part of the wrist joint, where it articulates with the wrist bones (carpals). The radius also allows the forearm to be rotated. The radio-ulnar joints are pivot joints in which the moving bone is the radius. As the head of the radius pivots at these joints, the lower end of the radius moves round the lower head of the ulna. The Wrist The wrist consists of eight carpal bones. These are small, short bones that are arranged in two rows of four. They have articulating facets which allow them to slide over one another. The Palm of the Hand The palm is supported by five long metacarpals. The metacarpals articulate with carpals at one end and with the phalanges at the other end. The Fingers The fingers are made up of fourteen phalanges. There are three phalanges in each finger but only two in the thumb. Task 1b The bones in the skeleton are classified according to their shape and size. They are divided into different categories such as: Long bones they are found in the limbs. These have a shaft known as the diaphysis and they consist of two rounded ends known as the epiphysis. They act as levers. Short bones these are small, light, strong and cube-shaped bones. They are like sweet with a hard shell and a soft centre. Flat bones these are thin, flattened and slightly curved. They have a large surface area. Sesamoid bones these are bones found in the tendons, such as the patella in the knee. Irregular bones these are bones with complex shapes and cannot be classified under any of the other categories. Cranium The cranium is a box-like cavity that consists of interlinking segments of bone that gradually fuse together during first few years of life. It contains and protects the brain. Clavicle They are long and slim bones. They provide a strong and mobile attachment for the arms and are designated for the performance of complex movements. Ribs The ribs are long, thin, curved, flat bones. They form a protective cage around the organs in the upper body. Sternum This is a long and flat bone that lies at the centre of the chest. It is commonly referred to as the breast bone and it divided into three sections: the top, the mid and the lower section. It forms the rib cage that protects the heart, lungs and major blood vessels. Humerous The humerous is the largest bone in the upper limbs. Its a long bone and its head joins with the scapula to make the shoulder joint. The end of this bone joins with radius and ulna to make the elbow joint. Radius and ulna The ulna and radius articulate distally with the wrist. The radius contributes more to the movement of the wrist than the ulna and is also the longer bone. The convex shape of the radius allows it to move around the ulna to make the hand turn. Scapula The scapulae are large, triangular, flat bones that form the posterior part of the shoulder girdle. It serves as an attachment for several muscles. Movements of the scapula are brought about by scapular muscles. Ilium The Ilium is the wide flat upper portion of the pelvis that is connected to the base of the vertebral column. It supports the lower abdominal organs. The ilium is the largest part of the innominate bone. Pubis The pubis is also known as the pubic bone. It makes the lowest part of the innominate bone. Ischium The Ischium is located below the ilium and makes the middle of the innominate bone. Carpals These are the bones that make up the wrist. They are made of regular and small bones which are fit closely together and kept on place by ligaments. Metacarpals On the palm of the hand metacarpals are padded by a thick layer of fibrous, connective tissue on the back of the hand and they can be seen and felt through the skin. The heads of the metacarpal bones form the knuckles. Metacarpals join the carpals with the phalanges and help support movement of the fingers. Phalanges These are small bones that make up the skeleton of the thumbs, fingers and toes. The phalanges at the top of the fingers are and toes are called distal phalanges, the ones that join the bones of the hands and feet are known as the proximal phalanges. Patella The patella (knee cap) is the triangular shaped bone in front of knee joint. It protects the knee joint. Tibia and fibula The tibia is the inner and thicker of the two long bones in the lower leg. It is also called the shin bone and is the supporting bone of the lower leg. The fibula is the outer and thinner bone of the lower leg. The fibula provides attachment for the muscles. Tarsals These are short and irregular bones. They help to support the weight of the body and provide attachment for the calves. Metatarsals The metatarsal is one of the five long, cylindrical bones in the forefoot the forefoot is responsible for supporting body weight and balance pressure through the balls of the feet. Femur This is the longest bone in the body. The top of it fits into the sockets of the pelvis to make the hip joint, and the lower ends joins with the tibia to make the knee joint. The femur supports the weight of the upper body and enables movement of the legs. JOINTS Joints provide the link between bones. A joint is formed wherever two or more bones meet. There are three types of joint, each classified according to the degree of movement they allow. Fixed A fixed joint occurs where the margins of two bones meet and interlock. Bands of tough, fibrous tissue hold the bones together. They are also known as fibrous or immovable joints. An example of a fixed joint is between the plates in the cranium. Slightly movable These allow some slight movement as the name suggests. The ends of bone are covered in hyaline cartilage which is separated by pads of white fibro cartilage. Slight movement is made possible because the pads of cartilage compress. Between most of vertebrae is an example of this type of joint. Synovial They offer the highest level of mobility at a joint and they consist of two or more bones, the ends of which are covered with articular cartilage, which allows the bones to move over each other with minimum friction. Synovial fluid lubricates and nourishes the joint. The joint capsule is held together by ligaments. This provides the strength to avoid dislocation, while being flexible enough to allow movement. Synovial joints can be divided into groups according to the type of movement they allow. Hinge These allow movement in one direction only. Elbow and knee are typical examples of hinge joints. The types of movement allowed are flexion and extension. Ball and socket It allows movement in all directions. The types movement allowed are flexion, extension, abduction, adduction, circumductiom, rotation, pronation, supination, dorsiflexion, plantar flexion, inversion, evasion and hyper extension. Examples include the hip and shoulder joints. Ellipsoid These are a modified version of ball and socket. Movement is backward and forwards and from side to side. They are also known as condyloid joints and the wrist joint is an example. Ellipsoid joints allow circumductiom, inversion and eversion. Gliding These allow movement over a flat surface in all directions, but this is restricted by ligaments or bony prominence, for example carpals and tarsal. Gliding joints allow inversion, dorsiflexion, plantar flexion and eversion. Pivot These allow rotation only about a single axis. An example is in the neck, where the atlas and axis join. Saddle These are similar to ellipsoid joints but the surfaces are concave and convex. Movement occurs backwards and forward and from side to side, as at the base thumb. SKELETAL RESPONSE TO EXERCISE Synovial Fluid movement at joints stimulates the secretion of Synovial fluid. Becomes less thick range of movement at joints increases. Mineral Content increased by physical activity on bones e.g. increase of calcium collagen to keep up with the demand pressed on your bones. Cartilage- becomes thicker becoming better at shock absorption, with regular exercise it also connects the ribs to the sternum. Tendons they become thicker and are able to withstand greater forces applied when we take part in a physical activity. Ligaments these will stretch causing an increase in flexibility so that the person taking part in the physical activity is able to twist and turn without getting any injuries. (it helps increase agility) Bones becomes stronger denser as a result of the demands you place on them through physical activity exercise. So it becomes hard for the bones taking part in an activity to break compared to that of a person who is not taking part in any activity. MUSCLES The main function of the muscles is to move the bones of the skeleton. There are three different types of muscle tissue which are: Cardiac Is an involuntary muscle that forms the wall of the heart and works continuously. It is highly resistant to fatigue. Each contraction and relaxation of the heart muscle as a whole represents one heart beat. Skeletal It is also known as striped or striated muscle. They are attached to the bones of the skeleton by tendons and they usually work in pairs. These muscles are voluntary i.e. works under conscious control. Smooth It is an involuntary muscle that functions under the control of the nervous system. it is located in the walls of the digestive system and blood vessels and helps to regulate digestion and blood pressure. All skeletal muscles contain a mixture of fast and slow twitch fibres. Type 1 muscle fibres slow-twitch This type of muscles contract slowly with less force. They are slow to fatigue and suited to long duration aerobic activities. They are recruited for low intensity activities likes long-distance running. Type 2a muscle fibres fast-oxidative They contract very quickly, are able to produce a great force as well as resistant to fatigue. These muscle types are suited for middle-distance evens like 800m and 1500m running. Type 2b fast-glycoltic This type of muscle fibre contracts rapidly and can produce large amounts of force; they are better suited to activities that require sudden bursts of power such as high jump. They also tire easily. MAJOR MUSCLES Origin muscles origin is attached to the immovable bone. Insertion muscles insertion is attached to the movable bone. BICEP Function flexes the lowers arm. Location inside of arm. Movement the origin is the scapula, which is movable, and the radius is the insertion that moves with contraction. Sporting/exercise when taking a jump shot in basketball the insertion moves back as the biceps contracts to pull the arm. Agonist when making the shot. Concentric contraction. TRICEP Function extends the lower arm. Location outside of upper arm. Structure Movement Sporting/exercise when Agonist when lowering then arm. Antagonist when working against biceps. DELTOIDS Functions abducts, flexes and extends upper arm. Location forms cap of shoulder. Origin clavicle, scapula and acromion. Insertion humerus. Sport/exercise forward, later and back-arm raises, overhead. PECTORALS Functions flexes and abducts upper arm. Location large chest muscle. Origin sternum, clavicle and ribcage. Insertion humerus. Sports/exercise all pressing movements. RECTUS ABDOMINIS Functions flexion and rotation of lumbar region of vertebral column. Location six pack muscle running down abdomen. Origin pubic crest and symphysis Insertion Xiphoid process. Sports/exercise sit-ups. QUADRICEPS Rectus femoris Vastus lateralis Vastus medialis Vastus intermedius Functions extends lower leg and flexes thigh. Location front of thigh. Origin Ilium and femur Insertion tibia and fibula Sports/exercise knee bends, squats HAMSTRINGS Semimembranosus Semitendinosus Biceps femoris Functions flexes lower leg and extends thigh. Location back of thigh. Origin ischium and femur. Insertion tibia and fibula. Sports/exercise e.g. running (extending leg and flexing knee) GASTROCNEMIUS Function plantar flexion flexes knee. Location large calf muscle. Origin femur Insertion calcaneus. Sports/exercise running, jumping and standing on tiptoe. SOLEUS Function plantar flexion. Location deep to gastrocnemius. Origin fibula and tibia. Insertion calcaneus. Sports/exercise running and jumping. TIBIALIS ANTERIOR Functions dorsiflexion of foot. Location front of tibia on lower leg. Origin lateral condyle. Insertion by tendon to surface of medial cuneiform. Sports/exercise all running and jumping exercise. ERECTOR SPINAE Function extension of spine. Location long muscle running either side of spine. Origin cervical, thoracic and lumbar vertebrae. Insertion cervical, thoracic and lumbar vertebrae. Sporting/exercise prime mover of back extension. TERES MAJOR Function rotates and abducts the humerus. Location it is found between the scapula and humerus. Origin posterior surface of the scapula. Insertion intertubercular sulcus of humerus. Sporting/exercise all rowing and pulling movements. TRAPEZIUS Function elevates and depresses scapula. Location large triangular muscle at top of back. Origin continues insertion along acromion. Insertion occipital bone and all thoracic vertebrae. Sporting/exercise shrugging and overhead lifting. LATISSIMUS DORSI Functions extends and abducts the lower arm. Location large muscle covering back of lower ribs. origin vertebrae and iliac crest Insertion humerus. sporting/exercise rowing movements OBLIQUES Function lateral flexion of trunk. Location found on the waist. origin pubic crest and iliac crest insertion -fleshly strips to lower eight ribs Sporting/exercise oblique curls. GLUTEUS MAXIMUS Function -0 extends the thigh. Location large muscle on the buttocks. Origin ilium, sacrum and coccyx. insertion femur Sporting/exercise knee-bending movements, cycling. RESPONSE TO EXERCISE Short-term responses these are the responses that happens immediately and do not continue to be like that after the physical activity. An increase in muscular temperature and metabolic activity. Muscles become more pliable which increases their flexibility and reduce the risk of injuries. Long-term responses this is sort of an outcome that is achieved after a long time of training Muscle bulk and size will increase. Tendons become thicker and stronger. Articular cartilage becomes thicker. There is an increase in muscle tone and possibly reduction in body fat. Cardiovascular System Structure The cardiovascular system consists of heart, blood vessels and blood. It is also referred to as the circulatory system. This system is the major transport system in the body by which food, oxygen and all other essential products are carried to the tissue cells. The heart is the centre of the cardiovascular system. It is a muscular pump which pumps blood to the working muscles. It is situated in the left side of the chest beneath the sternum. An adult heart is about the size of a closed fist. The heart wall is made up of three layers: the epicardium (the outer layer), myocardium (the strong middle layer that forms most of the heart wall), and the endocardium (the inner layer). The septum separates the right and left side of the heart. Each side has two chambers which function separately from one another. The atria are the upper chambers of the heart. They receive blood returning to the heart from either the body or the lungs. The right atrium receives deoxygenated blood from the superior and inferior vena cava. The left atrium receives oxygenated blood from the left and right pulmonary veins. The ventricles are the pumping chambers of the heart. They have thicker walls than the atria. The right ventricle pumps blood to the pulmonary circulation for the lungs and the left ventricle pumps blood to the systematic circulation for the body. Valves prevent backflow of blood. The bicuspid valve allows blood to flow in one direction only, from the left atrium to the right ventricle. The tricuspid valve allows blood to flow the right atrium to the right ventricle. The pulmonary valve prevents backflow from the pulmonary artery. The aortic valve prevents backflow from the aorta into the left ventricle. Chordae tendineae are cord-like tendons that connect to the bicuspid and tricuspid valves. They prevent the valves from turning inside out. The aorta is the main artery in the body and it originates in the left ventricle and carries oxygenated blood to body tissues except the lungs. The superior vena cava receives deoxygenated blood from the upper body to empty into the right atrium of the heart. The inferior vena cava receives deoxygenated blood from the lower body to empty into right atrium of the heart. The pulmonary vein carries oxygenated blood from the lungs to the left atrium of the heart. The pulmonary artery carries deoxygenated blood from the heart back to the lungs. It is the only the artery in the body that carries deoxygenated blood. As the heart contracts, blood flows around the body in a complex network of vessels. The structure of the different vessels within the cardiovascular system is determined by their different functions and the pressure of blood exerted within in them. Arteries carry blood away from the heart and with exception of the pulmonary artery they carry oxygenated blood. They have thick muscular walls to carry blood at high speeds under high pressure. The contractility of the arteries helps to maintain blood pressure in relation to changes in blood flow. Arterioles have thinner walls than arteries. These vessels control blood distribution by changing their diameter. Capillaries form an extensive network that connects arteries and veins. They are the smallest of all blood vessels, narrow and their walls are just one cell thick. Veins facilitate venous return the return of deoxygenated blood to the heart. They branch into smaller vessels called venules, these collect blood leaving the capillarie s and transport it to the veins. CARDIO VASCULAR (CV) Functions Delivery of Oxygen and Nutrients the key function of the circulatory system is to supply oxygen and nutrients to the tissues of the body. Blood carries nutrients absorbed from the intestine to the of the body, along with oxygen and water. Removal of waste products the circulatory system is responsible for the removal of waste products from the tissues to the kidneys and liver returns carbon dioxide from the tissues to the lungs. Thermoregulation the cardiovascular system is also responsible for the distribution and redistribution of heat within the body to maintain thermal balance. CARDIO VASCULAR Responses to Exercise During exercise, the heart beats faster and harder in order to meet the demands of the energy by the working muscles. If these demands are repeated frequently, the heart eventually becomes stronger. The heart and blood vessels of the circulatory system adapt to these repeated demands. Short-term responses Anticipatory heart rate before starting exercise the heart rate usually increases above resting levels to meet the demands of an exercise. Heart rate at onset of exercise this is the heat rate as exercise begins. Redirection of blood flow at the start of exercise, nerve centres in the brain detect an activity resulting in the rate and pumping strength of heart to increase. Regional blood flow is changed in proportion to the intensity of the activity to be undertaken. Vasodilatation this is the widening of blood vessels in order to increase blood flow when it is getting pumped out in high amounts. Vasoconstriction this is the narrowing of blood vessels to reduce blood flow. Long-term Responses Cardiac hypertrophy this is when the heart increases in size and blood volume. The wall of the ventricle thickens, increasing the strength potential of its contractions delivering more oxygenated blood to the working muscle so that they do not fatigue easily. Increased stroke volume the volume of blood pumped out each beat increases. Increased cardiac output the volume of blood pumped in one minute increases as a result the of increased heart rate, stroke volume or both. Decreased resting heart rate the heart rate returns to normal after exercise quickly. This reduces the work load on the heart. RESPIRATORY SYSTEM Nasal cavity this is the passage above and behind the nose. Air enters the body through the nostrils. Small hairs within the nostrils filter out dust and all sorts of foreign particles before the air passes into the two nasal passages of the nasal cavity. The air is then further warmed and moistened before it passes into the nasopharynx. A mucous layer within this structure traps smaller foreign particles, which the cilia transport to the pharynx to be either swallowed or spit out. Pharynx This is a funnel shaped that connects the nasal cavity and the mouth to the larynx and oesophagus. Commonly known as the throat, the pharynx is a small length of tubing that measures approximately 10-13cm from the base of the skull to the level of the sixth cervical vertebrae. The muscular pharynx wall is composed of skeletal muscle throughout its length. It is a passage way for food as well as air. This outlines that it has to have special adaptations to prevent choking when swallowing food or drink. Larynx it has got rigid walls made up of muscles and cartilage and it contains the vocal cords and connects the pharynx to the trachea. Trachea It is also known as windpipe and it is approximately 12cm long and 2cm in diameter in size, containing rings of cartilage to prevent it from collapsing. It travels down the neck in front of the oesophagus and branches into two bronchi. Bronchus the main aim for the bronchi is to conduct air into the lungs. The right bronchus is shorter and wider than the left. When air is inhaled and reaches the bronchi, it is warm, clear of most impurities and saturated with water vapour. Onc
Posted by Unknown at 7:15 PM
Monday, August 19, 2019
A Feminist Perspective of John SteinbeckÃ¢â¬â¢s The ChrysanthemumsÃ John Steinbeck, in his short story "The Chrysanthemums" depicts the trials of a woman attempting to gain power in a man's world. Elisa Allen tries to define the boundaries of her role as a woman in such a closed society. While her environment is portrayed as a tool for social repression, it is through nature in her garden where Elisa gains and shows off her power. As the story progresses, Elisa has trouble extending this power outside of the fence that surrounds her garden. In the end, Elisa learns but does not readily accept, that she possesses a feminine power weak for the time, not the masculine one she had tried so hard to achieve through its imitation. The work begins with a look at the story's setting. "The Chrysanthemums" was written in 1938, and the story takes place roughly around the same time. It is winter in Salinas Valley, California. The most prominent feature is the "gray-flannel fog" which hid the valley "from the rest of the world" (396). The mountains and valleys and sky and fog encapsulate everything inside as a "closed pot" (396). Inside this shut-off habitat the environment is trying to change. Just as the farmers are waiting for an unlikely rain, Elisa and all womenÃ are hopeful for a change in their enclosed lives. SteinbeckÃ¢â¬â¢sÃ foreshadows, "It was a time of quiet and waiting" (396). The action of the story opens with Elisa Allen working in her garden. She is surrounded by a wire fence, which physically is there to protect her flowers from the farm animals. This barrier symbolizes her life; she is fenced in from the real world, from a man's world. It is a smaller, on-earth version of the environment in which they live. This man's... ...mean she couldn't still be strong. The peddler's business of selling his service of fixing pots closes women out of his world just as natural fog closes of the valley. Although we hope her tears can be compared to the pruning she does to her precious chrysanthemums, clipping them backed for future and stronger growth, Steinbeck leaves the reader questioning the future for women. Elisa's tears will not rid the valley of the fog, for as Steinbeck tells us in the beginning, "fog and rain do not go together" (396). While Elisa will continue to dominate her immediate surrounding inside the fence using her power from nature, but she will not gain power outside of it, in a man's world. Work Cited Steinbeck, John. "The Chrysanthemums." Literature: An Introduction to Fiction, Poetry, and Drama. Ed. X. J. Kennedy and Dana Gioia. 6th ed. New York: Harper Collins, 1995.
Posted by Unknown at 10:57 PM
Caridina japonica Caridina japonica, die "Amanogarnele" Yamato-numa-ebi SÃ ¼ÃÅ¸wassergarnelen der Gattungen Atyopsis, Macrobrachium und Caridina erobern schon seit langer Zeit die Becken und Herzen derjenigen Aquarianer im Sturm, die so unvorsichtig waren, sich ernsthaft mit diesen faszinierenden Wirbellosen einzulassen. Dennoch muÃÅ¸ten sie hinsichtlich einer breiteren PopularitÃ ¤t meist hinter der beflossten Konkurrenz ein unverdientes Nischendasein fristen, obwohl sie doch mit Eigenschaften aufwarten kÃ ¶nnen, die besonders einige Vertreter zu fast idealen Aquariumbewohnern machen. Zuzutrauen wÃ ¤re ihnen selbstverstÃ ¤ndlich auch, daÃÅ¸ sie ihren groÃÅ¸en Auftritt auf einen Zeitpunkt verlegen wollten, der ihnen hierfÃ ¼r endlich einen angemessenen Rahmen bieten konnte. Opfer dieser ausgeklÃ ¼gelten Strategie wurde schlieÃÅ¸lich der japanische Fotograf und Pflanzenliebhaber Takashi Amano, der mit seinen phantastischen FotobÃ ¤nden und der PrÃ ¤sentation seines Konzeptes eines "Naturaquariums" nicht nur der Aquaristik weltweit neue, interessante Impulse vermittelte, sondern auch einer kleinen SÃ ¼ÃÅ¸wassergarnele ihr "coming out". Es ist angerichtet... verschiedene Algen unter dem Mikroskop Warum genieÃÅ¸t nun unter zahllosen Arten der Gattung Caridina ausgerechnet C. japonica inzwischen geradezu einen "Kultstatus" ? In Pflanzenbecken mit sehr mÃ ¤ÃÅ¸igem Fischbesatz, starker Beleuchtung und entsprechend hierauf abgestimmter CO2-Zufuhr finden nicht nur Wasserpflanzen gÃ ¼nstige Bedingungen vor, sondern auch verschiedene Algenarten, insbesondere Fadenalgen. Gerade bei solch einem "schnellen" Becken laufen gelegentlich einmal einige Faktoren schneller aus dem Ruder, als man mit Korrekturen nachkommen kann und die Algen nutzen die Gunst der Stunde, sich nicht dankbar auf das ihnen wohlwollend eingerÃ ¤umte MaÃÅ¸ zu beschrÃ ¤nken. Auf der Suche nach einer natÃ ¼rlichen Algenprophylaxe hat Takashi Amano parallel zum Einsatz von Otocinclus-Arten (fÃ ¼r die Scheiben *g*) mit verschiedenen einheimischen SÃ ¼ÃÅ¸wassergarnelen experimentiert. C. japonica aus der Region Yamato soll sich dabei als die weitaus effizienteste Art erwiesen haben. Yamato-numa-ebi - charakteristischer RÃ ¼ckenstreifen Nachdem ich selbst seit einiger Zeit Erfahrungen mit verschiedenen SÃ ¼ÃÅ¸wassergarnelen sammeln konnte, vor allem mit Neocaridina denticulata und meinem persÃ ¶nlichen kleinem Favoriten, der Zebra- oder Rotschwanzgarnele C. serrata, stand ich den sagenumwobenen QualitÃ ¤ten von C. japonica als RasenmÃ ¤her fÃ ¼r Fadenalgen mehr als skeptisch gegenÃ ¼ber. Kennengelernt hatte ich meine Garnelen bisher als ausgesprochene Allesfresser, bevorzugt wurde immer genau das Futterangebot, welches bei geringstem Aufwand die meiste Energie lieferte. Die Palette reicht von Tubifex Ã ¼ber Trockenfuttertabletten bis hin zu abgestorbenen Pflanzenteilen. Algen waren auch dabei... Irgendwann war ich vollstÃ ¤ndig vom "Garnelen-Bazillus" durchdrungen, und meine C. serrata stieÃÅ¸en mit ihrer energischen Forderung nach einem eigenen Becken nur auf schwache Gegenwehr, da ich ohnehin die Einrichtung eines Pflanzenbeckens ohne jeglichen Fischbesatz plante. Schon nach kurzer Zeit bekundeten die kleinen Racker ihr Wohlgefallen am neuen Lebensraum durch monatliche Verdoppelung des Bestandes, kamen aber der ihnen zugedachten Aufgabe als Algenkontrolleure nur mehr als nachlÃ ¤ssig nach.
Posted by Unknown at 2:39 AM
Sunday, August 18, 2019
Dylan Thomas' Do Not Go Gente Into That Good Night and Catherine Davis' After a Time In Dylan Thomas's "Do Not Go Gentle Into That Good Night" and Catherine Davis's "After a Time," there is a very clear concept of differences and similarities between the two poems. From a reader's standpoint, they seemed to be quite a bit more alike than dissimilar. Through an investigative analysis, "Do Not Go Gentle into That Good Night" and "After a Time" were proven to be comparable in almost every aspect in poetry, such as structure, rhyme scheme, and meter. At a first glance, both poems strike as death related pieces of writing. That is where the contrast of the two is distinguished. "Do Not Go Gentle into That Good Night" sees death as something we can fight to avoid. If one is able to "rage, rage against the dying light," he or she will be able to shy away from this life-ending situation. This author states that no matter the person or circumstances, everyone should envision death as a negative thing and resist as long as possible. This does not necessarily give a positive twist on death, but it does give one some insight into why there is a reason to rage until the end. In a stanza-by-stanza analysis, there was a more complex interpretation of the meaning. First in "Do Not GoÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦," the first stanza states that one should be able to feel old age creeping up on our bodies, yet we must fight against it. The author also informs us that wise people know when death is near because of a lack of interest in their words, and good people cry out their deeds to make them known. Explained in 4, crazy men, who do wild things, learn too late and ar... ... point is that the second stanzas last line in both poems contains the title of that particular selection. In conclusion, these poems, "Do Not Go into That Good Night" and "After a Time," are not completely the same, but they do prove to have a vast amount of similarities. Opposite meanings do not always signify a conflict in structure. The arrangement of the poems is nearly exact to one another, and they can be picked apart to find even more complex likenesses. A deeper understanding can be found of both of these pieces just by going into a detailed comparison and contrast. WORKS CITED ----------- Davis, Catherine. "After a Time." Literature: The Human Experience. 8th Ed. 2002. 1414-1415. Thomas, Dylan. "Do Not Go Gentle Into That Good Night." Literature: The Human Experience. 8th Ed. 2002. 1412.
Posted by Unknown at 6:21 AM